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GUIDE TO DALHOUSIE, CHAMBA AND THE INNER MOUNTAINS BETWEEN SHIMLA AND KASHMIR BY J. HUTCHISON, L.R,.C.P. & S.E. CHAMBA

Dhauladhar range
Dhauladhar Range 

This Guide was first published as a Guide to  Dalhousie only by the late Col. J. H. Hutchinson in 1869-70. A second edition appeared in 1883 d  Mr. R. L. Harris, C. S. The third edition in 1910  edited by Mr. H. A. Rose, C. S., contained much additional the information which has been greatly supplemented  in the present addition. The main aim has  been to give only such information as is likely to be  of permanent value and all rules about supplies,  transport, shooting, etc., are therefore omitted as they change almost every year. It is practically  a new Guide.

    THE ROUTE TO DALHOUSIE


    The main road to Dalhousie runs from Pathankot via  Dhar and Dunera in the outer hills. After leaving Pathankot it follows for 6 miles the Kangra Valley road and then turning sharply to the left enters the low hills. Ascending by an easy gradient it surmounts the first ridge of the Shivalik and descends into the dun beyond, through which it winds for some miles. At the 18th mile Dhar is passed,  and here another ridge of the Shivalik area is crossed. Then  the road runs for 10 miles in a very tortuous course, now  topping a ridge and anon dipping down into a hallow, till  at the 28th mile Dunera is reached. Here, there is a comfortable  and commodious Dak Bungalow. 

    Immediately on leaving Dunera the the road ascends  gradually to gain the summit of the Hathi Dhar at Khatori,  where there is a rest-house belonging to the Military Works  Department. Descending for a short distance to cross n  ravine it again rises steadily till the shoulder of the Bakloh  spur is reached, when it runs almost on the level for 2 or  3 miles to Naini Khad. 

    At the 16th mile from Dalhousie, a  branch road  ascends on the right to the military station of  Bakloh, and joins the old road to Dalhousie which enters at  the Post. Office. There is a rest-house at Mamul near Bakloh.  

    Above Naini Khad the main road ascends to Dandiara,  where there is another road bungalow of the Military Works,  and then, skirting the terminal spurs of the Dhaula Dhar reaches Banikhet. Here another branch leaves on the left to join the Sindhara road from Pathankot to Chamba. The  road then describes a curve round the side of the Ealun  spur, and enters Dalhousie at the Dalhousie Club.  

    The scenery of the Shiwalik through which the road  runs, in the greater part of its course, is very different in  many respects from that of the inner mountains, and has  its own peculiar beauty and charm. It would be difficult,  indeed, to imagine anything more lovely than some of the prospects in this region on a clear the day when the hills and valleys lie basking in the sunshine. 

    The wild luxuriance of the vegetation is a striking feature in the landscape, and to the traveler from the plains is all the more pleasing in contrast with what has been left behind. The outer ridges are covered with a tangled maze of barberry, cactus, and other plants and trees of semi-tropical growth, intertwined with the wild rose, clematis, and jessamine. In the valleys, the eye is gladdened with the sight of romantic glades and hollows, in which are situated the wattle huts and isolated homesteads of the peasantry. At 4,000 feet the semi-tropical vegetation is left behind, aid is succeeded by forms of a more  Alpine character, with copses of pinus longifolia stunted oak. 

    Looking back from this point the most prominent feature of the Shiwalik region is seen to be the parallelism of the ridges and valleys of which it is composed. These run from south-east to north-west and gain in altitude as they recede from the plains. In speaking of the same area in  Kangra, Mr. Vigne-who was one of the first European travelers to visit this hills-not inaptly compares the ridges and valleys to waves of a troubled sea, suddenly  arrested and turned to stone.  

    Dalhousie, it's situated at the western end of the Dhaula  Dhar, where its terminal spurs begin to drop to the Ravi.  The average altitude is about 6,500 feet ; at the Post Office  it is 6,700 feet, while the top of Bakrota Hill is about 8,000  feet. The principal hills are Bakrota, Terah and Potrain,  of which Bakrota is most salubrious. There are also a few  houses on Kathlag Hill, but the situation is too low to be bracing.

     Balun spur to the north of Terah is entirely occupied  by the Barracks and the Garrison Hospital. Between  Terah and Balun is a small spur, called Sonanatala on which  are the Tennis Courts and the Dalhousie Club, and to the  west of it, on Mankot and Tikka spurs are numerous huts for  the troops as an extension of Balun.

     At Banikhet is located  the Military Dairy for the supply of butter and milk to the  station, with a branch on Balun during the season.  The Post Office and Church are in the gap between  Bakrota and Terah hills and the Kachiri is at the northwestern  extremity of Potrain Hill.  
    Hotels The Bull's Head was the first hotel to be opened  in Dalhousie. It is now used chiefly as a Mess for the  Officers of the Balun Depot. In the same compound is  the Grand View Hotel, recently erected, and the Springfield  Hotel is situated at the south-western corner of Terah Hill.  


    The Malls Each of the three principal hills have a level  circular road running around it  of these the Upper Bakrota  Mall is the finest and longest,  being fully three miles round,  and from it extensive views are obtained of the low hills and  plains to the south, and the snowy ranges to the north.  The Terah Mall runs from the Post Office to the Assembly  Rooms and the Springfield Hotel, then round the south  side of the hill to the Post Office again. It is about one and a  half miles in circuit. The Potrain Mall starts from the  Springfield Hotel, and encircles the hill it is about one mile around.  

    The best way to realize the situation of Dalhousie is to  take one's stand on Dayan Kund at 9,000 feet, where a  magnificent panorama Iies spread out before one. Facing  south-west the Kala Top spur is on the right with the  Dalhousie hills-Bakrota, Terah, Potrain and Kathlag stretching  away towards the Ravi.

    Bakloh is seen at a  greater distance on the left, and beyond are the ridges and  valleys of the Siwaliks, running parallel to one another and losing indistinctness as they recede towards the plains. Far  in the distance is the outermost ridge, with the cut near  its extremity to allow the Chakki to flow into the Beas. Near  this is Pathankot, with Shahpur a little farther to the northwest,  on the Ravi.  Within the Siwalik area two wide river beds are seen running  parallel, the one to the east being the Chakki and that to the west, the Ravi. East of the Chakki is the Shiwalik  hills round about Nurpur and across the Ravi to the west,  the same ridges and valleys stretch away in the direction of  Jammu. 

    On a clear day, three at least of the great Punjab rivers are.  visible, glittering in the sunshine and losing themselves in  the plains beyond, which seem to melt away into infinite  space. These are the Sutlej, the Beas, and the Ravi. Even  the Chenab may sometimes be seen. 

    Turning to the north the gaze rests on an amphitheater of lofty ranges, with a foreground of mountain and  valley, forest, gorge, and stream. Closing in the horizon to  the west and north-west are the rounded summits of the Kund  Kaplas and Dagani Dhar, which in summer are entirely  free of snow. Beyond them are Bhadrawah and Balesa in  Jammu. 

    To the north and north-east the snowy pinnacles  of the mid-Himalaya or Pangri Range stretch out in majestic  array, many of them rising to an altitude of 18,000 and  19,000 feet. Beyond them are Pangi and Lahul. Towering  up from behind them are two lofty peaks, covered with snow,  one slightly rounded and the other pointed and precipitous,  which among Europeans are known as the Bride and the  Bridegroom. These are in the Gurdhar range in Pangi,  and are about 21,000 feet in height, being the highest peaks  in Chamba State. 

    Far to the south-east the eye can trace  the line of the Dhaula Dhar, till the range is lost in a mighty  maze of snowy mountains, chief among which is the Kailash,  at whose base rests the sacred lake of Manimahesh.  Within this wide expanse it is easy to detect the tortuous  course of the Ravi gorge, though not more than a  glimpse of the river can anywhere be seen. The Siyul, its  largest tributary is also hidden from view  but a considerable  part of the open valley is clearly visible as well as the general  trend of its many converging tributaries from the snowy range. Below, in the near foreground, is the lovely forest  glade of Khajjiar, and just beyond it the deep hollow of the  Ravi in which Chamba is situated. Lastly, over the valleys  and mountain slopes are sprinkled the hamlets of the peasantry,  each in its own area of cultivation, lending an additional  charm to the landscape and presenting a fascinating  picture of rural beauty and repose.  

    History of the  Sanitarium



    The project of the formation of a Sanitarium in the  Chamba Hills originated with Lieutenant-Colonel Napier,  then Chief Engineer of the Punjab (afterward Lord Napier  of Magdala). 

    In 1851 selection was made of a spot where the Dayankhund  ridge breaks into spurs. Of these, the lowest spur-  Kathlag (lat. 32° 32° N., Long. 76° E.) was considered the  most suitable for a convalescent dep8t ; and Dr. Clemenger  of the 49th N. I.  was directed to proceed to the proposed  site to record the necessary observations on-site, etc. Dr.  Clernenger's final report was submitted in October 1852   and the sanction of the Government of India for sufficient land to be taken up was given in September 1853. A committee  was then appointed to decide the boundaries of the proposed  site  and finally, the hills of Kathlag, Potreyn, Terah,  Bakrota, and Bhangora taken up a reduction being made in the tribute due by His Highness the Raja of Chamba of Rs. 2,000 out of the Rs. 12,000 annually paid by him. 

    This was sanctioned by the Government of India in  February 1854, and at the recommendation of Mr. (afterward Sir Donald McLeod), the Sanitarium was called  " Dalhousie." In 1856 Captain Fagan was employed under  the orders of the Honourable East India Company, in marking  outlines of supply and communication for the proposed  station.  

    The station was then marked off into sites, roads traced out, and roles laid down for the preservation of the trees,  sanitation, etc., in the Dalhousie Pamphlet of 1859. The  sites were advertised as available under these rules. In 1860  Dalhousie was transferred from the Kangra to the Gurdaspur  District  up to that time little or nothing had been  done towards forming the Sanitarium, beyond making a  road to it from the plains. In 1860-61 the civil water-supply was in working order. At this time the Terah (since re-named by the natives Moti Tibba) and Potrain Malls were constructed.  In 1861-63 the Bakrota Mall was in progress.  In February 1861 most of the sites marked off were put up  for auction and sold to the highest bidder. The station was, at this time, a purely civil station. 

    In 1866 it was determined that the barracks for the Convalescent  Depot should be built on the Balun plateau, below  Terah, instead of at Kathlag   fresh land was therefore  taken up from the Chamba State for this purpose  and at  the same time the Bakloh Hill (14 miles from Dalhousie,  towards the plains) was taken as a cantonment for the 4th  Gurkhas. 

    For these two portions of the Chamba State a further deduction of Rs. 5,000 a year was made from the tribute  payable by the Chamba Raja.  In 1868 troops were  for the first time, located at Balun.  It was originally a depot under the command of a Military  Officer appointed for two years, but during recent year  a wing of a British Infantry Regiment from one of the stations in the Lahore Command has been quartered there  under its own officers. In addition to this wing at Balun,  troops from the Lahore Command are quartered in barracks,  recently erected, on Tikka spur and Mankot, so that there  are wings of three British Infantry Regiments quartered  round Dalhousie married families being accommodated in tents.

    Balun, as a convalescent depot has ceased to exist on 25th July 1867 Dalhousie was constituted a municipality  of the first class.  The Kacheri, Police Station and Civil Dispensary is situated on the south side of Kathlag. The Bazar lies to the east of these below Potrain Mall. 

    The original plan was  to make the tennis court etc., at the level ground near  the Post Office, but in 1881 they  were made on a spur, below  the Assembly Rooms which had been built by Mr. Leghorn  in 1871.

     The racquet court and Assembly Rooms are now the property of the Municipal Committee.  The old Reading Rooms were in the Assembly room  but in 1890 the " Chamba Club " was started with Winnieville  and the Bull's Head Hotel as its quarters, the Reading  Rooms being reconstituted under the Club's management ,  in Bexley  Shrapnel Lodge with two adjacent houses  was subsequently taken instead for quarters reading rooms,  etc. 

    In 1897 Government sanctioned the lease to the Chamba  Club for 99 years of a piece of land, about one acre in area  on the Sonanatala spur, opposite the Bull's Head, for the  purpose of building a Club-house to contain the usual recreation  rooms. The Club (now called " Dalhousie Club ")  is under the management- of a governing body  and is  housed in one building, which is its own property  and contains  a Billiard Room, Library, Reading Room, Card Rooms,  Bar, etc.  

    Sanitation and Water Supply 


    Dalhousie and Bakloh lay claim to being two of the  healthiest places in the Punjab. The original system of sanitation in Dalhousie was  devised by Dr. Hendley, Civil Surgeon, in 1888 and has worked admirably.  The water for the station and for Balun all comes from  tha Panchpul stream, which springs from the north-side  of Dayankund in the gorge formed by the diversion of the  great spur to form the hills of Khirki Galli, Bakrota, Terah  and Potrain. 

    This stream runs down a picturesque ravine  to the water-works of Panchpul, and thence in a steep gorge crosses the Bakloh road above the Brewery. The upper stream is in Chamba territory, and the lower part forms the boundary of Dalhousie. The Chamba authorities,  however, have agreed to stop all cultivation along its course and are replanting the catchment area so that its  absolute purity is secure. Since the formation of the station  several water-supply schemes had been suggested but were  not carried out.

    In 1890 fresh proposals were laid before  Government and were sanctioned. These proposals resulted in pipes being laid down from the Panchpul stream and carried over Bakrota, Terah Hill, and Potrain and thence into the bazar. There are three storage reservoirs in the  station itself and one in the Bazar, while hydrants have "  been set up at convenient places along the route of pipes from which water is drawn for the neighboring houses.   Catchment area Under the orders of Government this area is inspected once a year by a committee formed of The Assistant commissioner, Dalhousie, The Station Staff Officer  Dalhousie,  The Conservator of Forests, Chamba State  and  An official deputed by the Chamba State.  The report of the committee is forwarded to Government   and this ensure that planting operations are never  relaxed.  The average annual rainfall in inches for a period of  20 years from 1883 to 1903 was 85.98.  

    General Descriptions  


    Chamba State is situated in the Western Himalaya  between north latitude 32° 11' 30" and 33° 13' 6" and east  longitude 75° 49' 0" and 77° 5' 30". The boundaries are as  follows :-On the north-west and west Jammu and Kashmir , on the north-east and east Ladakh, Lahul and Bara Bangha1 , on the south-east and south the districts of Kangra and  Gurdaspur. 

    The superficial area of the State is 3,216 square miles,  with a population at the census of 1911 of 135,989, giving a  density of 40.9 to the square mile.  Chamba, the capital, stands on a plateau on the right  bank of the Ravi  19 miles from the hill station of  Dalhousie and 50 miles from Shahpur Kandi, where the  Ravi leaves the hills.  

    In shape the State is more or less of a rough oblong  the greatest length-from south-west to north-east being  about 70 miles  and the greatest breadth-from south-east  to north-west-about 50 miles. Within this area are  embraced a small a portion of the Beas Valley, a section of the  Ravi Valley, and a similar section of the Chandra Bhaga or Chenab 'valley. 

    These main valleys are separated from  one another by well-defined snowy ranges, running more  or less parallel, in a direction from south-east to the northwest.  The first range-the one nearest the plains-is called  the Outer Himalaya or DhaulaDhar, separating the basin  of the Beas from that of the Ravi,  the second is the mid-  Himalaya or Pangi Range-the Pir Panjal of geologists between  the basin of the Ravi and that of the Chandra Bhaga or Chenab  and the third is the Western Himalaya .the  direct continuation of the main Himalayan axis between  the Chenab and the Indus. 

    These ranges are all  in continuity with the main Himalayan ranges from the  east and, except the DhulaDhar which ends at the Ravi,  are continued westward into Kashmir territory.  

    Passes


    The passes in the Dhaula Dhar in Chamba  State range from 8,000 feet to nearly 16,000 feet those of  the Pangi range from 14,328 to 17,000 feet and those of  the Western Himalaya are all over 17,000 feet.  The portion of the Beas Valley included in the State is  situated to the south of the Dhaula Dhar, and is called  Bhattiyat. It adjoins the districts of Kangra and Gurdaspur,  from which it is divided by a low range named  Hathi Dhar, and the State boundary follows the crest of  this range, from near Shahpur in Kangra to the river Ravi,  which separates Chamba from Jammu. 

    To the south-east  of Bhattiyat the Dhaula Dhar forms the boundary for 36  miles between Chamba and Kangra.  The Ravi or Chamba Valley, lies between the Dhaula Dhar and the Pangi Range. It is divided into three sections  by the natural features of the country, and these correspond to three of the wazarats or sub-divisions of the State. The  south-eastern section called Bharmour includes the upper  portion of the Ravi Valley, and also the valleys of the  Budhal and the Tundahen two large tributaries if the Ravi.  

    This was the original nucleus of the State, of which Bharmour  was the ancient  capital and being the home of the Gaddis,  it is often called Gaddaran.  The central portion of the Ravi Valley extends from the  Chirchind Nala near Chhatrari to the junction of the Ravi  and the Siyul. It is called the Chamba wazarats and in it  the capital is situated.

    The north-western portion of the valley, called Churah,  embraces the entire basin of the Siyul, the largest tributary  of the Ravi  and to the north-west is separated from Bhadrawah and Balesa in Jammu by a range named Dagani  Dhar.  

    The Chandra Bhaga or Chenab Valley in the State is  called Pangi and Chamba Lahul  and lies to the north of the  Pangi Range. it is separated from Zanskar in WesternTibet by the Western Himalaya. 

    Rivers


    The Beas does not flow through any part of  the State, but two of its tributaries the Chakki and the  Dairh rises on the southern slopes of the DhaulaDhar and flows through the eastern portion of Bhattiyat. 

    he Ravi is the principal river of Chamba. It rises in  Bara Bhanghal, an outlying district of Kangra, and flows in a north-westerly direction immediately to the north of the Dhaula Dhar. At Ulansa it is joined by the Budhal  and the Tundahen and lower down by the Chirchind Nala.  

    After passing Basu and Mahla it approaches Chamba, which  is situated on a plateau on the right bank at a considerable  elevation above the level of the river. Here it is joined on  the right bank by the Saho or Sa1 and the town stands in the  fork near the junction of the two rivers About 10 miles  lower down the Siyul its largest tributary brings down  the whole of the waters of the Churah wazarat. 

    The  Ravi then bends to the west and southwest  forming for some  distance the boundary between Chamba and Jammu territories  and finally leave the State at Keri and flows through  the low hills past Basohli to Shahpur Kandi where it debouches on the plains.  

    The Chandra Bhaga or Chenab rises on the summit of  the Bara Lacha Pass in British Lahul by two heads the  Chandra and the Bhaga. These unite at Tandi, and the  main river enters Chamba territory at Tirot where it is  joined by the Tirot Nala forming the boundary  After  passing Triloknath and Margraon through a fairly open  valley it enters the narrow gorges of Chamba-Lahul, and  Pangi and flows between precipitous cliffs where the road  is for the most part dangerous. 

    Below Shor, the valley is a  little more open though there are still spots where great  care is necessary  and near Phindru the river passes through  a rocky gorge where the road is for some distance formed of beams and planks resting on iron bars fixed horizontally in the face of the precipice.  

    The principal tributaries are the Miyar Nala and the  Saichu Nala from the Western Himalaya the former joining  at Udaipur in Lahul, and the latter at Sach in Pangi. Lower  down is the Hunan or Hundan Nala at Kilar and the  Sural Nala at Darwas . while the Sansari Nala forms the  boundary between Pangi and Padar in Jammu. In Padar  the Chandra Bhaga flows through deep gorges for 24 miles,  till it reaches the plain of Padar from which the district receives its name.

    This plain is four miles long and one  mile wide and the river flows along the northern margin.  Here it is joined by the Bhutna Nala from the Western  Himalaya. At Jhar it again enters the narrow gorges  through which it flows all the way to Kishtwar. It then  bends southward in a deep gorge to the west of the Kishtwar  plain, and is here joined by the Maru-Wardwan from the  Western Himalaya. The valley below Kishtwar is fairly  open and at Tantari river makes another bend to the  west and flowing past Doda., Ramban and Rihasi finally leave the hills at Aknur.

    History 


    The Chamba State is one of the oldest native principalities  in Nothern India, having been founded in the middle of the 6th century A. D. In early times it probably formed  a part of the Kingdom of Kashmir  to which it seems to have  been subject more or less for many centuries.

    The original capital was at Brahmapura, now called Bharmour, in the  Upper Ravi Valley. Originally of a small extent, the State  yet seems to have been of considerable importance, as is shown by the ancient temples still existing in Bharmour.  The State possesses a unique collection of ancient records  and archaeological remains from which its history has been compiled. These records consist chiefly of historical documents copper-plate title-deeds, and inscriptions on stone,  brass, wood, silver and gold. 

    Many of the objects on which  these inscriptions occur, or photographs of them  may be  seen in the Bhuri Singh Museum at Chamba. The bansauli  or geological roll of the Chamba Rajas contains a great  amount of historical material of much interest, and its  general accuracy is attested by strong corroborative evidence. 

    The oldest inscriptions in the State arc at Bharmour and date from  the reign of Raja Meru Varma (A. D.  680-700) whose name they bear, as also the names of  several of his ancestors. Meru Varma was the eighth in  descent from Maru, the founder of the State. 

    In the beginning  of the tenth century Sahila Varma, the 20th in  descent from the founder, conquered the Lower Ravi  Valley from the petty chiefs  called Ranas and Thakurs, who  then held it, and moved his capital from Bharmour to  Chamba. 

    The original form of the name was Champa.  Several of the temples in Chamba are ascribed to this Raja,  especially those of Lakshmi Narayan, Chandar Gupt and  Champavati, the last having been built in honor of his  daughter who is worshipped & a goddess.

    It is the family  temple of the Chamba chiefs. The oldest copper-plate deed  bears the name of Sahila Varms's son and successor, Yugakar  Varma. Till the early part of the 12th century Chamba  seems to have been subject to Kashmir  and several references  to it occur in the Raja Tarangini but in times of confusion, it may have been quite independent. About the middle of  the 12th century Chamba like other hill states seems to  have taken advantage of the disorder caused by the Muhammadan invasions to assert its independence, which it successfully  maintained till the time of Akbar the Great .

     About  A. D. 1560-1580 it became subject to the Mughals. There  are a number of letters in the State archives, the oldest of  which dates from the reign of Shahjahan and also valuable  presents. In A. D. 1752 Chamba passed under the supremacy  of Ahmad Shah Durani along with the rest of the Punjab  and about A. D. 1770 came more or less under the control  of the Sikhs. 

    In A. D. 1808-09 it was subjected by Maharaja  Ranjit Singh and was tributary to Lahore till 1846,  when the Punjab Hills were ceded to the British Government  after the first Sikh War In 1863, at the request of Raja Sri Singh, a British Political Officer was appointed to assist  in the administration  and by the introduction of various  reforms inaugurated an era of prosperity which has made the State one of the most progressive in the Province. 

    It is politically under the control of the Supreme Government.  The State was formerly much larger than it is now.  In Kangra the whole of the southern fringe of the Dhaula  Dhar as far as Bir Bangahal, including the small districts of Rihlu and Palam, was State territory for centuries. In  the Chenab Valley Padar and Bhadrawah now in Jammu and  the main valley in British Lahul as far up as the junction of the Chandra and Bhaga rivers, were included in the  State.

    Archaeology

    The ancient remains of Chamba were first examined by Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1839, but his visit was too short to admit of full justice being done to the subject. Only of recent year has the whole wealth of antiquarian, especially epigraphical material, been brought to light, chiefly, & rough the researches of Dr. Vogel of the Archsaeological  Survey of India. These remains consist chiefly of ancient temples, copper-plate title-deeds, and inscriptions on stone, brass, copper, wood, silver and gold.

     Temples

    The temples in the State are of two kinds, named hill temples, and shikhara or plains temples. The hill temples are associated with the Nag and Devi cults, and other cults of a similar character prevailing throughout the hills, some of them from ancient and probably aboriginal times. These temples have been erected on much the same design from remote antiquity. Their construction is extremely simple. They consist of a small cella or sanctuary, in which the image is placed, usually raised on a square plinth and built of layers of rubble masonry, alternating with beams of cedarwood. 

    This is surmounted by a sloping roof of wooden shingles or slates, supported by wooden posts, which form a verandah or procession- path around the shrine. The roofs of these temples are frequently renewed, but the cella may remain unchanged from age to age. Though simple in their construction some of these temples are of great interest owing to the elaborate decoration of their facades, ceilings, and pillars. Some of them are known to date from A. D. 700, and many may be much older. The three most prominent temples of this class in the State are Lakshana Devi at Bharmour, Shakti Devi at Chhatrari, and Markula Devi at Markula or Udaipnr in Chainba-Lahul . 

    The shikhara or spired temples in the State are not numerous, and the design is similar to that of temples in Rajputana and other places in the plains. The earliest temples of this class in the State were erected only in the tenth century, and most of them much later. The oldest temples of this kind are those of Lakshmi Narayan and Chandargupt standing near the north-west corner of the palace at Chamba which are ascribed to Raja Sahila Varma (A. D. 920-10), the founder of the present capital. Next in age are the temple of Narsingh and Mani Mahesa at Brahmaur, the ancient capital, one of which (Narsingh) was built by Yugakar Varma son and successor of Sahila Varma. 

    The original temple of ManiMahesa was erected by Raja Meru Varma (A. D. 700). But it is very doubtful if the present building goes back to so remote a time. Other temples of this class are those of Gauri Shankar ascribed to Yugakar Varma, and Hari Rai (probably erected by Salavahana Varma (A. D. 1040-1060)  also Bansi Gopal and Bhagavati of later date. The Triloknath temple in Lahul is also of the shikhara design, but in front of it is a hill temple forming a porch, in which the idol may originally have stood.

    For a full account of the temples and other remains in the State reference may be made to the Stake Gazetteer or to the Antiquities of Chamba, Volume I by Dr. Vogel, Archaeological Survey.

    Copper-plate title-deeds

    In ancient times, and down almost to the present day, it was the custom to engrave on copper plates all deeds of gift conveying grants of land to Brahmans or temples  and in few states were the chiefs more generous in this respect than in that of Chamba. There are more than 160 of these documents in existence in the State, and many more must have been lost. Most of those extant are in the possession of the owners of the lands to which they constitute the title, but a number have been surrendered to the State and are retained in the Bhuri Singh Museum, where  they are open to inspection. 

    They are all engraved in the Sanskrit language and the script is Sharada or Tankari, the ancient script of the hills. The oldest copper- plate extant was granted by Raja Yugakar Varma (A. D. 940- 960) and there is also a plate of his son, Vidughda Varma. The other plates of the pre-Muhammadan the period was granted by Soma Varma and Asata Varma, sons of Salavbahana Varma, referred to in the Raja Tarangini as having been deposed by Ananta Deva of Kashmir (A. D. 1060). They reigned in the latter half of the eleventh century. 

    Speaking of the copper-plates Dr. Vogel says " The existence of a series of documents of this kind issued by a line of rulers of one State during a period of ten centuries is certainly unique in the Punjab and perhaps in the whole of India. It is all the more remarkable as in the surrounding hill districts, only very few specimens of such documents have come to light, and these of a comparatively recent date. Chamba is at present the only place in the Punjab where copper-plates of the pre-Muhammadan period exist."

    Inscriptions 

    These are very numerous in the State. The object of the inscription usually was to commemorate some pious gift, or to record the erection of an idol, a temple or a cistern. Such inscriptions are found all over the State to the utmost limits of Pangi and Lahul. The oldest is in the Brahmi and Kharoshti characters dating from several centuries before the Christian era. They are found in Kangra but within the area formerly included in the Chamba State. In the Ravi Valley, the oldest inscriptions are in Gupta characters of the 6th century A. D. and those of a later date are in Sharada, the character still in use in Kashmir while the more recent ones are in Tankari and Nagari and one or two in Tibetan. 

    Excluding those of the last two and a half centuries and including copper-plates, there are 130 in all. The oldest of importance are engraved on the pedestals of the brass images of Lakshana Devi, Ganesh, Nandi at Brahmaur and of Shakti Devi at Chhatrari and date from about A. D. 700. They all contain the name of Raja Meru Varma by whose order they were engraved and also the names of his father and great grandfather as well as of the workman, Gugga.

    Most of the inscriptions on stone are found on huge slabs covered with quaint and grotesque figures which the traveler will often notice at springs either in situ or lying disused and broken. 

    These slabs originally formed part of elaborately carved water fountains erected in the olden time, chiefly by the Ranas and Thakurs, who ruled the country before the advent of the Rajas and who still exercised great authority even after becoming subject to the Chamba rulers. 

    They were, in fact, the barons of the hills and many of their families still exist in the State (vide State Gazetteer). These water fountains called panihar and nahun were erected in memory of their deceased ancestors and for their spiritual bliss in the next world. Such cisterns are common all through the State, but the largest of them are found in Pangi and Padar. They are numerous in the Chenab Valley from Sisu in British Lahul down to Kashtwar, but only a few of then bear inscriptions. 

    One of the finest of the carved and inscribed stones is at the village of Salhi in Pangi formerly the abode of a Rana, who ruled the greater part of the Saichu Nala and whose descendants still reside in their old home. 

    Monolith slabs


    The traveler will often see near villages especially in Pangi, long monolith slabs set up in the ground showing rude carvings and often with a circular stone fixed on the top. These too are memorials of the dead-called dhaj like the tombstones in our own cemeteries and are set up with great ceremony and much feasting of the relatives and friends of the deceased. This custom has come down from aboriginal times (vide State Gazetteer).

    Geology


    The following is a brief outline of the geology of the State On the approach from the plains the first rocks met with are the tertiary series of the Siwalik area composed of sandstone and conglomerate in contact along their northern margin with the old Himalayan rocks. The line of junction is a reversed fault, the old rocks appearing above the tertiary beds. The rocks along the line of contact are altered lavas, but towards the east, the trap dies out and the Tertiary conglomerates are in contact with the CarboTriassic series, consisting of limestone and slates. North of these a narrow band of gneissose-granite appears, called the Outer Band to distinguish it from the granite of the Inner Band or DhaulaDhar.

    The rocks between these granite outcrops are of Silurian age and consist of mica schist fine grained arenaceous rocks and slates, some of which near Dalhousie form good roofing slates.

    The main range of the Dhaula Dhar is composed of gneissose granite from end to end. Orographically it  terminates at the Ravi but geologically it is continued across that river to Kund Kapla in Jammu by a granitic band running through Kala-top and Chil. In Dalhousie the granite ends on the western slope of Terah Hill where it is in contact with the Silurian slates. It is an igneous rock and has been intruded through the schists and slates of the Silurian series, which lie in contact with it along both margins and in its passage has torn off and carried along with it large splintery fragments of these rocks.

    Half-way between Khajiar and Chamba the northern margin of the granite is in contact with Silurian rocks, consisting of micaceous and quartzose schists and slates, some of them near Chamba forming good roofing slates. On the Pangi road near Masrund Carbo-Triassic rocks are again met with composed of Blaini conglomerate in two bands separated by trap and limestone. 

    The limestone is well seen near the Kalhel rest-house. North of Kalhel the second band of conglomerate appears and continues to a point opposite the great bend of the Siyul river. The rock has a hard matrix and is full of quartz pebbles of all shapes and varying sizes. To the north-west the Carbo-Triassic series is well seen in the Upper Siyul Valley as far as the Padari Pass  to the south-east the southern band of conglomerate with the trap and limestone are seen in the Saho Valley and Upper Ravi Valley. 

    The conglomerate and limestone are well marked on the ascent from the Gurola bridge to Khani near Brahmaur but the trap has thinned out. The strike then runs to the south of Brahmaur and bends round towards the Chobia Pass to join the Blaini conglomerate of Pangi and Lahul. The northern band bend round towards the Marhu (Charar) Pass and also joins the Blaini conglomerate of Pangi. 

    The general dip of the strata from the Siwalik area to the inner Carbo-Triassic series is north-east but a synclinal fold now changes it to the south-west and the Silurian rocks which now come in, continue with a south-west dip to the top of the Sach Pass. Close to the top of the pass the conglomerate again appears and the dip suddenly rises to perpendicular and then underlies to the north-east. 
    The anticlinal coincides with the very summit of the pass. The rocks are conglomeratic as far as Donei, and along their northern margin two narrow bands of crystalline limestone appear and are followed by siliceous schists, quartz schists and mica schists which continue till the gneissose-granite are reached under the village of Pirgao in Pangi. 

    Following the strata up the Pangi Valley from Kilar the granite is succeeded by Silurian schists, with a southwest dip to the Shilal stream where it becomes almost perpendicular. Very distinct glacial markings are seen on a shelving rock near the Shilal Nala, which is crossed by the roadway, proving that at no remote period the whole of the Chandra Bhaga Valley must have been filled with confluent glaciers, that flowed down into the Pangi Valley to a point lower than 7,500 feet.
    To the south of Shor (Soar) two narrow bands of limestone are crossed followed by well-marked Blaini conglomerate as far as Tothal. Here the dip leans over to the north-east at the foot of the descent from Rauli the conglomerate again appears, being doubtless the northern band of the outcrop seen near Kalhel which here joins the conglomerate of Pangi

    This outcrop ends near the stream from the Marhu Pass  but at the Harsar Nala, halfway between Tindi and Silgraon, another well-marked outcrop begins and continues as far as the Silgraon encamping-ground. Beyond this point the rocks are Silurian with an old facies and the dip is north-east, but gradually becomes vertical between Silgraon and Margraon  and it continues vertically to some way east of Triloknath when it inclines over to the south-west. 

    Blocks of conglomerate are found in the side nalas east of Triloknath. These are from the outcrop seen on the Sach Pass which runs eastward and is again seen in the Cheni ice stream  between Shor and Tothal  and again at Silgraon. From this point it has been traced as far as the Kalicho Pass and probably bends south a little east of this to join the Bharmour outcrop in the Chobia Nala. The gneissose-granite of Pangi is part of a very extensive granite intrusion that is crossed on the way from Kishtwar to Pangi

    It first appears on the road at Piyas. In Pangi the southern margin south of Kilar runs to the south of Parmaur and Tuan, and is seen in the Chasag Nala, and north of Tingrat in the Miyar Nala. It then contracts considerably in width and is crossed by the Central Asian trade road between Kolang and Darcha in British Lahul

    As regards the age of the rocks in the Chamba area, no fossils have been found in the Silurian series, but the Blaini Conglomerate which is now generally admitted to be of glacial origin is considered by General McMahon to be of Devonian age at the latest. Crinoid stems are abundant in one of the beds of the Carbotriassic series from which Mr. Lydekker formed the opinion that the limestone is not older than the Carbo-triassic nor younger than the Trias. Again, according to General McMahon the Gneissose granite of the Dhauladhar was erupted at the end of the Eocene or beginning of the Miocene division of the Tertiary period. 

    The level plateaux along the banks of the Ravi and the Siyul and in the side valleys are chiefly composed of alluvial conglomerate and sand. They may be regarded as of lacustrine origin, or may have been formed by the wash of the rivers, in the same way as similiar alluvial deposits at the present time.

    SHOOTING IN THE CHAMBA STATE

    Chamba State continues to maintain its reputation for good shooting, as is evident from the steady increase in the number of sportsmen who visit it every year. It is, however, admitted that shooting is not so good now as it used to be in 1870 but the introduction of the Shooting Rules in the State has afforded a good deal of protection to the game. The rules which were first published did not restrict the number of animals to be shot by each sportsman during the season, but the revision in 1904 imposed this restriction. This limit has produced good results as the game is said to be thriving. 

    The game to be found in the State is ibex, thar, Gural, Sarao, snow-leopard, barking-deer, musk-deer, black and brown bear, pig, and leopard. In the Ravi Valley there is only one place (Kugti) where ibex and sometimes a snow- leopard can be had, but in the Chenab Valley, they are fairly numerous. 

    For shooting the Churah Wazarnt is considered good and many sportsmen go there, but this is accounted for by the fact that a great number of shikaris come from this Wazarat. It was quite the best place in the Ravi Valley for shooting up till 1885  but the tract has lately been much shot out, and so it has become second in importance to the Bharmour Wazarat. 

    In the Chenab Valley, Pangi is decidedly better than Chamba-Lahul for shooting, but the country on the right bank of the Chenab in Pangi is strictly closed against shooting. The Saichu Nala in Sach Pargana, which is one of the State preserves in the Valley, contains more ibex than any other part of the Wazarat. In Lahul the Miyar Nala is supposed to be the best for ibex.

    For sportsmen who wish to shoot in the Churah Wazarat the nearest route from the plains is through Dalhousie and Khajjiar. This route is also the shortest to Pangi, but sportsmen generally go there via Kishtwar and Padar, especially if they wish to shoot in both Territories, i.e. in Kashmir and Chamba. The Bharmour Wazarat is more accessible via, the Kuarsi Pass from the Dharmshala side, but this pass is not open till late in the season, so it is advisable to proceed there through Chamba. 

    Shooting in the Bhutyat (Bhattiyat) is not very good and the only animals to be got there are gural, pig, and barking-deer. Small game shooting is fairly plentiful all over the State but Monal and Tragopans are not allowed to be shot without the special permission of the Raja. 

    Barasingha are only found in Bhandal during the rutting season. The Nalas in which they are found are the Rajs's rakhs and strictly preserved.   The Raja generally shoots there every season and so permission is very seldom if ever given to sportsmen to shoot Barasingha in his territory. 

    The Sai pargana in the Churah Wazarat is also closed for his own shooting and none but his special friends are allowed to shoot in it. Copies of the Shooting Rules and the Rules for the occupation of the State and Forest Rest-houses on the main routes, and a list of 1st Class Shikaris, may be had on application at the State Secretariat. 

    ROUTES. 

    Chamba

    The town of Chamba stands on a small plateau near the confluence of the Saho and the Ravi. It has a population of 6,000. Behind and to the east rises the Shah Madar hill, crowned by the ziarat of that Muhammadan saint. Southwards a small rocky spur from this hill slopes towards the Ravi and limits the town in that direction. To the north is the deep gorge of the Saho. Facing the town and to the west flows the Ravi under a steep cliff about 150 feet high. 

    The town is built on two terraces. On the lower is the Chaugan a fine grassy sward, about half a mile long by eighty yards broad. Tradition is silent as to its use as a polo ground, and the name is etymologically distinct from Chaugan, the Persian name of Polo, being of Sanskrit origin and meaning " four-sided." Besides being a public promenade and recreation ground, the Chaugan is utilized for State Darbars and sports. 

    At its southern end stands the Residency, in its own grounds, elegantly furnished. Originally erected as a residence for the Political Officer it is now used as a Guesthouse and Lord and Lady Curzon were accommodated in it in 1900. East of the Chaugan are the Hazri Bagh  Club and State Offices while further on is the main Bazar of the town. For nearly half its length, the Chaugan overlooks the Ravi. At the chaugan Gate stand the Post and Telegraph Offices and from it, another line of shops runs to the Kotwali and the State Museum .

    The State Hospital is a massive building, standing at the north end of the Chaughn. Behind it is the Dak Bungalow and near it the new Guest-house. North-east of the Hospital is the Mission Compound with Mission Houses, Dispensary and Church. On the upper terrace the most conspicuous building is the Palace, in two large blocks, the northern containing the Public Darbar halls and living rooms, while the southern is the Bhera or Zanan Khana. Most of the present building was erected by Raja Sham Singh, but the oldest portion, its north-west comer, called the Kandchandi was built by Raja Ummed Singh (1748-64). The Darbar Halls are all furnished in European style. 

    The entrance is from the north-east into an outer courtyard tastefully laid out in flower beds. with fountains. Adjoining the Palace is the present of Raja's residence. East and south of the Palace, and between it and the Shah Madar Hill stand the houses of many of the higher classes of the inhabitants, and of most of the State officials, Conspicuous among them is the Rang Mahal or Old Palace, which, however is really quite modern. 

    The aqueduct from the Sarota stream, made by Raja Sahil Varma (A. D. 920) enters the town at the foot of the Shah Madar Hill. where a steep flight of stone steps built by Sarda, Rani of Raja Jit Singh (1794-1808), leads to an ancient shrine upon the hill. Another long stone ladder ascribed to Raja Raj Singh (1764-94) leads up the rocky spur to the south of the town, to the Chamunda Temple  whence a fine view is obtained up and down the valley. 

    A second new Guest-house has also been built to the south of the Residency in Darogh suburb, and near it is the Forest Bungalow. The State barracks stand to the south of the town near Jalakhri village. The most interesting buildings in Chamba are the ancient temples, which are of great architectural beauty. A11 the larger ones are decorated with ornate carvings and in appearance closely resemble the temples in Rajputana. 

    The six principal temples stand in a row on a platform near the north-west corner of the Palace. Three of then are dedicated to Vishnu and three to Shiva. The temple of Hari Rai by the Chaugan Gate is said to be of great antiquity and legend affirms that the Ravi once flowed in a shallow stream across the chaugan and the temple had to be approached by stepping stones.

    At the north end of the Hazri Bagh stands the Champavati Temple, the family temple of the Rajas. Two other temples Bansi Gopal near the eastern mate of the Palace and Sita Ram's near the Raja's house, are of the same type and a third, with fine carvings dedicated to Bajreshvari or Bhagavati, stands on the Sarota Nala. 

    All these are Shikhara or spired temples, in contrast with the temples of the hills which are usually pent-roofed. The town has a good water supply and an electric light installation in the principal buildings and in the Bajar, with arc lamps on the Chaugan. 

    The Chamba State is divided into the following five Wazairats :--Chamba and Bharmour in the main Ravi Valley  Churah in the Siyul Valley, Bhattiyat to the south of the Dhaula Dhar and Pangi in the Chandra Bhaga Valley. Each Wazarat is sub-divided into a certain number of Parganas or ilaqas, and there are 60 of these small administrative districts in the whole State. 

    In each Pargana there is a State Kothi which is the official headquarters of the district. The pargana officials are called Char, likhnehara and Balwal or collectively  Kardars, and travelers should always apply to them for assistance in procuring coolies and supplies. As a rule, the stages are so arranged that the halting-place where coolies are changed is near a Kothi, and where this is not possible a special State official is appointed at the stage to attend to the comfort of travelers. The coolies being all farmers are not under obligation to go farther than one stage with the traveler, unless where no change of coolies is possible as on a snowy pass. 

    For the rates payable to coolies refer to Schedule of Coolie Rates issued by the State Travelers generally begin the journey into the interior from Chamba where all ordinary supplies are procurable. English stores, if not purchased in Dalhousie, may be had at D. C. Khanna's shop in Chamba. 

    It is advisable to bring servants up from the plains as the number of cooks, etc. in Chamba is very limited. No tents are to be had on hire, and these as well as camp furniture should be brought from the plains or Dalhousie. Ordinary supplies such as fuel, milk, ghee, and atta are procurable at every stage where there is a State official on duty. Fowls and eggs are abundant in Churah and to a lesser degree in the Chamba Wazarat but are not plentiful in Bharmour or Bhattiyat. 

    In Pangi eggs maybe got in Kilar. Sheep can usually be purchased through the officials, but the price varies in different localities. The only other supplies procurable in Pangi are atta, ghi, milk, and fuel. Late in the season potatoes may often be had in the interior of the State. Good chaplies which are much superior to boots for hill traveling may be had in Chamba but are best made to order. Travelers should see that the socks are stitched with leather instead of thread. Two pairs of socks to every pair of chaplies are recommended.

    Routes From The Plains 

    Pathankot to Chamba 

    Approach Routes.-Three main lines of road, I'll diverge from Pathankot, lead from the plains and reunite where they reach the Suspension Bridge over the Ravi, close to the town. These are, respectively, the Dalhousie, Sandhara, and Chuari roads. The Dalhousie road has already been described.

    Pathankot to Chamba via Sandhara

     This is an ancient line of communication with the plains. dating probably from very early times. 
    After touching the Ravi at Shahpur (6 miles), it follows the left bank of that river, passes Phangota (12 miles), and enters Chamba at Kairi. From Singhara (10 miles) it ascends the Gaggidhar ridge, north of Dalhousie, and is connected by a branch from Banikhet with the Dalhousie road. After sinking to Bathri (12 miles) it again rises and crosses the Chi1 spur, but descends to the Ravi at Udaipur, and thence follows its left bank to the Suspension Bridge (15 miles) which is 57 miles from Pathankot or 65 via Banikhet. Since the Dalhousie, the road was made this route has been little used for through traffic, but the stretch from Chamba to Banikhet is much used in winter. The scenery between Shahpnr and Sandhara is picturesque, but the road is rough for laden animals, especially between Phangota and Sandhara. 

    At Shahpur a branch runs through the low hills to join the Pathankot-Dalhousie road about three miles south of Dhar. The road is not kept in good order but is passable. The distance from Shahpur to Dhar is 12 miles. 
    From Sandhara. to Shahpur Kandi, a distance of 25 miles, the Ravi is navigable in spring and autumn or a Khatnau or bed-raft. This is a light charpai, resting on and lashed to two dreins or inflated skins, on which the traveler sits, while the raft is piloted by two men swimming alongside. The journey is accomplished in 7 hours. The arrangement is made by the State Vakil st Dalhousie. The traveler should spend the night, in Sandhara rest-house and start at daylight. 
    There are rest-houses at Shahpur, Sandhiira, Bathri, and Chil.  

    Pathankot to Chamba via Chuari. 

    This is another old line of communication with the plains. After leaving the Kangra Valley road at Nurpur it runs north, into the low hills towards the Dhaula Dhar. Near Malukal it enters Chamba territory. At Ghatasni it leaves the river and ascends a spur to Chuari (16 miles). It then crosses the Dhaula Dhar by the Chuari or Basodan Pass, 8,000 feet, and descends to the Ravi at the town of Chamba (18 miles). From Pathankot to Chamba by this route is only 50 Miles, so that it is shorter than either of the other routes. It is used all year round. For two or three months in winter, the Chuari Pass is usually under the snow, but the road is se1dom closed to pedestrians for more than a few days at a time. Above jajari stand the ruins of Taragarh Fort built by Raja Jagat Singh of Nurpur about A. D. 1625-30. 
    Branch Roads- (1). From Chuari s branch road runs via Sihunta (16 miles) to Shahpur (12 miles) where it joins the Kangra Valley road. It is about 51 miles from Chamba to Dharmshala by this route, but some of the streams are not bridged and may be difficult to ford during the rains otherwise, the road is good, and fit for ponies and pack animals. Near the Chamba, the border is the ruins of the old fort. of Ganeshgarh, erected by Raja Ganesh Varma about A. D. 1550. 
    (2). From Chuari another branch runs to Bakloh (12 miles) and thence to Dalhousie (14 miles), and from the top of the Chuari Pass, a rough bridle-path runs via DayanKund and Ka1atop to Dalhousie (18 miles). There is a Dak Bungalow at Nurpur and State rest- houses at Chuari and Sihunta, 

    Dalhousie to Chamba. 

    Four roads run from Dalhousie to Chamba, via the Khajjiar, Kolhri. Chil and Bathri routes. 
    Khajjiar Road.-This  the road begins at the Dalhousie Post Office, ascends Bakrota hill and leaving Kalatop on the left, winds through a dense forest of pines and deodar to Khajiar (10 miles) a forest glade of great beauty, 6300 feet above sea level. 
    On the brink of a small lake in its. the center stands an old shrine to Khaji Nag, from which the place takes its name greensward slopes on all sides towards the lake, and the glade is encircled by a forest of cedars. The lake is about 15 feet deep and has a floating island, marked by tall grass. During the summer Khajjiar is much frequented by visitors. After leaving Khajjiar the road runs level for a short distance but soon descends rapidly into the Ravi Valley, which suddenly bursts into view, with the town of Chamba far below. The reaches of the river near the town are visible, and to the south, the valley is closed in by a high granite peak of the Dhaula Dhar, called Kankot, which is covered with snow for nine months in the year. The last part of the road drops by an easy gradient to the Ravi and ascends from the Suspension Bridge to the town. 

    The distance is 19 miles from Dalhousie to Chamba by this road, but it is usually closed by snow from December to April. There are Dak Bungalows at Khajjihr and Chamba, but the former is closed for some months in winter. 
    Kolhri Road. An alternative route to Chamba is the Kolhri road, 22 miles in length. Leaving Dalhousie near the Post Office it descends with a gentle gradient to Kolhri and then to the Ravi, joining the Sandhara road at Udaipur. 
    Chi1 Road.- At the 7th mile on the Kolhri road, a level cross-road runs to Chil (9 miles) and connects the Kolhri and Sandhara roads. The distance to Chamba via Chil is 20 miles. 
    Bathrti Road.This road, after leaving the Post Office, descends into the Bathri Valley, to join the Sandhara road at Bathri (5 miles). Being mostly at a low level it is much used in winter when the other roads are under snow. The distance to Chamba is 20 miles. The Kolhri and Bathri roads are hotter and less interesting than the Khajjiar road, and are, therefore, little used in summer, though much used for mule transport. 

    Chamba to Kilar in Pangi via Sach Pass. 

    Pangi Road -This road on leaving Chamba descends to the right bank of the Ravi, but at Kiyani it leaves the river and ascends to Pukhri, on the watershed between the Ravi and the Siyul. Rising to Masrund (12 miles), it drops to cross the Karair Nala and rising again winds along the slopes overhanging the Siyul to the rest-house at Kalhel (9 miles). Here it descends to moss the Kalhel stream, and regaining its former elevation runs on the level till it drops again to the Nakror bridge and there it crosses the Chanju Nala. It then winds along the slopes for some distance and crossing the Tisa Nala ascends to Tisa (12 miles). From the top of the ridge above Tisa it descends to the Baira Nala, which it crosses at Gauri, and then runs up the Always Nala to Tharela, and a few miles further on reaches Always (12 miles). Here coolies must be engaged to cross the Sach Pass, 14,328 feet, in three marches, to Kilar in Pangi. The stages are Silrundi (7 miles) and Donei over the pass (9 miles), Bindraban (5 miles), Kilar (5 miles). There are small glaciers near the top, and the snow is low down till June. Prom July the pass is easy and the road almost free of snow. Near Dhid the road enters the main Pangi Valley, and crossing the Chandra Bhaga by a wooden bridge ascends to Kilar. 
    The Pangi road is good all the way, except for the toilsome ascents and descents at the different tributaries of the Style. Ponies can go as far as Allah's. There are State rest-houses at Masrund, Kalhel, Tisa, Always, Bindraban, and Kilar Special permission is ' necessary for Pukhri rest-house. 

    Chamba to Mindhal in Pangi via Cheni Pass 

    A branch leaves the Pangi road three miles beyond Tisa (33 miles) and runs to Debri-Kotlri (12 miles). Here, coolies are engaged for the Chennai Pass (14,290 feet), which is crossed in three marches to Mindhal in Pangi. After passing Hail and entering the Nala the road is a little rough for five miles. Higher up the Nala is open and the road good. Camp near the foot of the pass (9 miles). 9 large cave high up on right bank affords good shelter in bad weather. On the second day, the ascent is steep over the glacier and a precipitous cliff, where the road is dangerous. On the north is an icefield for some distance and then a rapid descent. Camp at grats near the junction of the ice stream; (10 miles). The third day's march to Mindhal is a short one of 6 miles. 
    KILAR
    Killar the headquarters of the Pangi Wazarat, is about 68 miles from Chamba. It is a mere cluster of villages with a State Kothi and a Forest rest-house. A Post Office, where all ordinary postal business is transacted, is open from May till October. In n cedar grove near the rest-house, is Dev Nag  temple where a buffalo is sacrificed over third, fifth, or seven-year in Katak (October). 
    MINDHAL
    At Mindhal, a village in Pangi on the left bank of the Chandra Bhaga, opposite Sach is the temple of Chamunda or Mindhal Basan Devi, which has long been a place of pilgrimage. Square in shape, with a pent roof-which, is the usual style of Devi temples in the hills it is made of wood and stone and comprises s central cella with two verandahs, one enclosed and the other open. The idol is in the human form of black tone and is believed to have sprung out of the ground, and to extend to a great depth downwards. 

    A meal, held here in Bhadon, is frequented by people from all the neighboring valleys, and as many as 100 sheep and goats are sacrificed, the blood which is made to flow into a hole near the temple door being believed to run under the group  to a pool near the river which it tinges red. 

    Kilar to Kishtwar

    From Kilar, the road runs down the right bank of the Chandra Bhaga at a high level. Near Darwas (7 miles) there is a steep descent to cross the Sural Nala and then a more gradual one to the jhula over the Sansari Nala, which is the Chamba boundary. Rising steeply the road runs on to Ashdari (12 miles), and then again descends to cross the Angai Nala and further on the Kaban Nala at Sol (12 miles). This stage is rough. From Sol to Gulabgarh or Atholi (8 miles) the road is fairly good. From Gulabgarh a branch ascends the Bhutna Nala and crosses the Umasi Pass (17400 feet) to Padam in Zanskar. 
    The road is fairly good all the way. There is a large snowfield on the top of the pass and the descent on the north side is very steep for a short distance over snow. The marches from Gulabgarh are-Mashu, 8 miles Chishoti, 8 miles, Lusain, 12 miles; camp at Sumjam near Sapphire mine, 8 miles , camp at Ruhar (15.000 feet), 8 miles, Gaura, 12 miles, overpass Ayting, 10 miles; Padam, 6 miles. Coolies are taken from Lusain to Ayting and traveler's baggage is examined at Sumjam by the sepoy guard. The lower part of the Bhutna Nala is exceedingly pretty, and there is a fine cataract below Chishoti. 
    The main road to Kishtwar crosses to the left bank of the Chandra Bhaga at Padar. The camping ground at Atholi where there is a Post Office and small dispensary. The application should be made to the Tahsildar for coolies and supplies for three days. The hot sulfurous springs should be visited. First march-Atholi to ShBsho, 15 miles, road good, first four miles on the plain. Jhar is the last village. Shisho to Piyas, 12 miles, road good but very precipitous in many parts picturesque bridge over Kontaru Nala, fine scenery all the way. Piyas to Ohli, 12 miles, road good but precipitous as far as Piyas Nala Change coolies at Ohli. Oh to Kishtwar, 12 miles, road good all the way very fine view of Kishtwar plain from the shoulder of the hill. 
    Since the opening of the new road a few years ago, the old road from Padar vid Sereri to Kishtwhr, most of which is very difficult, has been abandoned. From Sereri very fine views are obtained of the Brahma peaks, 21,000 feet. 

    Kilar to Lahul and Kulu

    After leaving Kilar the road crosses the Hunan stream and gradually drops to the bank of the main river at Siddh- ka dera. It then enters a narrow chasm where the planks, forming the roadway, are supported on iron bars fixed in the cliff. The Parmaur and Saichu Nalas are crossed near Cheri, the next stage, on the river bank below Sach (8 miles). At Mindhal Bridge the road crosses to the left bank and runs almost level to Purthi (10 miles). The Cheni and Shilal streams are bridged by strangers and on a rock near the latter stream are the glacial markings noted. 
    At Purthi the road crosses the river by a jhula to reach the forest rest-house; the main road running on past Ajog to the jhula at Shor (4 miles). The scenery from Kilar - to Shor is very fine. The new road from Kilar to Shor was made in 1869-70, and is fairly good all the way, except at four spots where special care is necessary these are at the rocky chasm near Phindru between Cheri and the Mindhal bridge the approach to Purthi and between Purthi and Shor. 
    The old road ascends from Cheri after crossing the Saichu Nala and climbs through forest to the higher slopes, along which it runs to Reh and Purthi, rejoining the lower road at the Shor jhula. Except for a short distance east of Reh, this road through steep is good, and from it, fine views of the main valley are obtained. A picturesque bridge spans the Mujar Nala near Purthi. 

    From Shor to Tindi are two marches and no change at Rauli. The road which is difficult in places follows the left bank at a high level to Total, a small flat opposite the Karun Nala. Beyond Tothal it runs along the face of a precipice over-hanging the Chandra Bhaga to Rauli (9 miles), and most of the way is narrow and dangerous but between Rauli and Tindi (7 miles), it is fairly good. From Tindi to the Harser Nala is an open flat, but the rest of the way to Silgraon (8 miles) is along the face of the cliff and somewhat difficult. At Silgraon the road crosses to the right bank, and except at the Kurcher Na1a and one other spot, it is narrow and dangerous all the way to the Darer Nala near Margraon. At Margraon (12 miles) the Urgad Nala is crossed, and from this point the valley is open and the road good. At Udaipur, the Miyar Nala is crossed by a wooden bridge, and Triloknath (6 miles) on the left bank, is reached by a bridge over the main river. Another bridge above Triloknath carries the road back to the right bank, along which it runs to the Chamba border at Tirot and then to Jarma (14 miles] in British Lahul. The Tirot Nala is crossed by a wooden bridge. 
    The next stages are Lota, 7 miles; and Keylong 9 miles. Road is good from Margraon, and fit for ponies. There are State rest-houses at Kilar, Cheri, Sach, Purthi, and Tindi, with a small hut at Rauli, also a rest-house at Keylong.
    Triloknath
    The Triloknath temple is in Chamba-Lahul, where a local Rana or Thakur resides. The temple is in the Shikhara style like those at Chamba, but in front of it is an older shrine, in the style of a hill temple, which is Buddhist. It contains an image of Triloknath or Avalo- kiteshvara, artistically carved in white marble, and representing a Bodhisattva figure, seated cross-legged. 

    It has six arms, three on each side, and stands about three feet high. Facing the temple, and adjoining it, are places for the accommodation of pilgrims to the shrine. The Mela held in August is accompanied by drinking and dancing. No sacrifices are offered at the shrine, and the Puja chiefly consists in keeping lamps always burning before the image, and in reciting passages from the sacred books. 

    The lights are of wicks fed with ghi, and great numbers of them are arranged in a platter, and then lit. The officiating priest is a lama and the control of the temple is entirely in the hands of the local Ran$, whose residence is close by, and whose ancestors have held their lands from time immemorial. This tirtha is visited by pilgrims from all parts of India and even from Ladakh and Tibet Proper, Hindus, and Buddhists intermingling as if they were of one faith. The pilgrims come either from the Kulu or the Pangi direction, and Hindu sadhus frequently lose their lives in attempting to cross the high snowy passes into the Ravi Valley. 

    The shrine was originally Hindu and dedicated to Shiva. At Udaipur near Triloknath is the temple of Mirkula Devi which contains some fine Buddhist carvings. Near Triloknath the first signs of Buddhism are seen in the long low walls covered with loose stones, on each of which is inscribed the Buddhist prayer. Om mani padmi hom. These become more numerous, longer, and more elaborate in British Lahul. The walls are called mani, and it is considered an act of great merit to have contributed to their construction. The lettering is usually done by the lamas, who must be well-remunerated for their trouble, and therein lies the merit of the deed. 

    Pangi to Zanskar

    1. Prom Darwas a branch ascends the Sural Nala and crosses the Sarsank Pass (16,200 feet), into the Danlong Nala. 
    2. A similar branch from Kilar runs up the Hunan Nala and crosses the Shinkil Pass (16,300 feet). 

    3. From Sach, a branch ascends the Saichu Nala to Saichu (10 miles), and Tuan (8 miles) and crosses the Mun La (16,500 feet), and unites with the two roads from Darwas and Kilar the combined road then crosses the Poatla (17,500 feet) to Burdan Gompa in Zanskar. 
    The roads from Kilar and Tuan are now seldom used. That from Darwas takes five days to Burdan Gompa,. The stages are  Kansar, 8 miles , Atyud, 10 miles , Gokhun (over Sarsank Pass) 16 miles. Sangati (Danlong Nala), 6 miles, Punchi (over Poatla) 12 miles; Burdan Gompa, 6 miles. Large glaciers on both passes. 

    In former times a certain amount of Central Asia,n trade went by these routes while still more passed through Padar and by the Umasi la to Padam in Zanskar. It came from Pathankot and Nurpur and over the Sach and Cheni Passes to Pangi. 

    4. In the Saichu Na1a, an upper road runs from Kutal near Sach to Shun and rejoins the other road at Hillu, but it is rough and in places dangerous. From Saichu a branch runs up the Chasag Nala to Bhotaur (10 miles) and crosses the Gurdhar Pass (16,791 feet), to Miyar (20 miles) in the Miyar Nala. This pass is so-called owing to its being passable for ponies, which are brought from Lahul by this route to Pangi and over the Sach Pass to Chamba. Two men are needed to render help at difficult parts of the road. 

    5. At Udaipur s branch runs up the Miyar Nala and is narrow and difficult for four riles. From Chimrat (12 miles) the valley is open and to the road good, up to the head of the valley where it crosses the   Kang La, 17,500 feet, in the Western Himalaya to Burdan Gompa. The journey from Kanjer, the last village occupies five days. The stages are Gompa, 8 miles; Kesaryuncha, 7 miles; Dutombn, 8 miles Churiil-pachan, (over Kang La), 12 miles, Bardan Gompa, 6 miles. 

    6. Beyond Kanjer a branch ascends a side na1a to cross the Tharang La, 17,133 feet, to the head of the Kado Tokpo stream in British Lahu1. The journey from Kanjer to Darcha takes four days, large glacier but road fairly good no village till near Dkrcha. 

    Chamba to British Lahul. via Kugti Pass. 

    Bharmour Road.-This the road after leaving Chamba follows the right bank of the Ravi to Rakh 12 miles), crosses the Bagga Bridge, and runs on to Gehra. So far level, the new road ends here, and its alignment returns to the old road, which ascends the slope to Chhatrari (12 miles). The new road commenced in 1878, was to have been carried as far as Bharmour, but was never completed. 

    Beyond Chhatrari the road drops to the Chirchind Nala and rises by a long ascent to Kothi and the Sarali Pass (9,000 feet). It then drops to Ulansa (12 miles), and Gurola, on the left bank of the Ravi and crossing the river rises to Khani, whence it follows the Budhil Valley up to Brahmaur (10 miles). Hursar (10 miles) is the next stage beyond Brahmaur and so far the road is good, but thence to Kugti (12 miles) most of it is rough and narrow. A hill pony can be taken as far as Brahmaur. 

    From Kugti the road crosses the Kugti Pass to Jobrang in British Lahu1. The distance is 24 miles or 3 marches, and the same coolies go all the way. There is deep snow till June, but in July and August the pass is almost clear and there is no permanent glacier. The pass is very steep near the top on both sides otherwise, the road is good. New snowfalls in September. The following are the stages:- first day from Kukti to the foot of pass (8 miles) second day over the pass 17,001 feet (10 miles) the third day a short march to Jobrang (6 miles). The next stage is to jarma (4 miles) or Lota (8 miles), and the Chandra Bhaga is crossed by a long and difficult jhula near Jobrang. 
    There are State rest-houses at Rakh, Chhatrari, Ulansa, and Bharmour.  

    Chhatrari

    24 miles from Chamba on the way to Brahmaur, is a tiratha or place of pilgrimage. Its the only object of interest is a temple, containing a brass image of Shakti Devi or Kali, which, as the inscription shows, was erected by Raja Meru Varma (A. D. 700). Gugga the workman who erected the temples at Brahmaur is said to have afterward built a house at Kothi Ranhu for the local Rana, then had his right hand cut off lest he should build as fine a residence for someone else. His hand is, however, believed to have been miraculously restored by the goddess Shakti when he was called upon to build her temple at Chhatrari. 

    Another tradition says that Gugga was accidentally killed by a fall from the roof of the temple porch, after having all but completed his work. The name " Chhatrari " is derived from the words Chhattis (36) and larhi, (three acres), 36 larhis of land having formed the sasan, or grant made to the temple by Raja Bala Bhadra (1589-1641). A mela is held here in September, on the third day after the Durbashtmi mela at the Mani Mahesh lake whence a man bring a lota of water with which the idol is bathed. 

    Brahamaur

    48 miles from Chamba, is interesting as having been the capital of the State for some 400 years till (A. D. 920). The State Kothi is believed to occupy the site of the old palace. The temples are among the oldest archaeological remains in the State. The principal is those of Lakhshana Devi and Ganesa both in the hill style- and those of Mani Mahesha and Narsingh which are in the shikhara style of architecture. A brazen bull of life-size stands in front of the Mani Mahesa temple. Inscriptions on the idols of Lakhshana Devi and Ganesa, and on the pedestal of the bull all date from the reign of Raja Meru Varma (680-700). 

    The level ground on which the temples stand is called the chaurasi. Bharmour is the headquarters of the Wazarat of that name and has a Post Office open for 6 or 7 months in summer. There is a forest rest-house on a beautiful site about a mile from the State Kothi. The country around Brahmaur is regarded as belonging to Shiva, and is sometimes called " Shiv-bhumi ": being the home of the Gaddi tribe it is also called Gaddaran.  

    Mani Mahesha Lake 

    One march from Harsar in the Budhil Valley is Mani Mahesh, one of the chief titles or places of in the State. The lake lies on a small plane in the Mani Mahesh Range 13,000 feet above sea level, and at the base of the Kailash peak (18,564 feet). It is of no great size, and on its margin is a small marble image of Shiva, called the Chaumukha. A mela held here every year in Bhadon or Asuj is frequented by pilgrims who come to bathe in the lake from all the surrounding districts, and even from distant parts of India.

    Bharmour to Triloknath in Chamba-Lahul via Chobia Pass. 

    From Bharmour a road crosses to the right bank of the Budhil and runs on to Chobia (8 miles) here coolies must be engaged for the Chobia Pass (16,720 feet) leading to Triloknath. The road over the pass is fairly good as far as the Chobia Nala, but difficult for a short distance in the bed of the stream after the snow bridges have melted then fair to the foot of the pass, steep ascent over glacier near the top, with bad crevices on the northern side in autumn; afterward easy to Triloknath. The crossing is easiest in May and June: three marches; Chobia to Camp, 8 miles; Camp to Camp, lover pass; 10 miles; Camp to 'I'riloltnath, 6 miles. 

    Bharmour to Triloknath via Kali-Cho Pass. 

    At Bharmour a road descends to cross the Budhil. It then rises to Tatahn (G miles): where it is joined by a branch from Khani, and thence runs up the Tundah valley to Badra (12 miles). From Tatahn the road is a mere hill track and very rough. Coolies for Triloknath via the Kali-Cho Pass (16,402 feet) must be engaged at Badra, and the journey takes three days. Badra to Camp, 8 miles; Camp to Camp, overpass, 10 miles; Ca'mp to Triloknhth, 8 miles. 

    There is a very steep ascent of 4,000 feet on the pass where the road is dangerous from falling stones; the descent is steep near the top then easy to Triloknhth. Camp near the foot of the pass.

    Chamba to Tindi in Chamba Lahul Via Darati Pass. 

    The road on leaving Chamba descends to cross the Saho Nala and ascends its right bank to Chiminu where it turns into the Hul Nala. It is fairly level to Silla Gharat (12 miles). From Silla Gharat it rises steeply to cross the Saho Range at Ranaut, 9,000 feet, and runs on through forest at this elevation for some distance before descending to Bangor (10 miles). 

    On the next march, the steep descent continues to the bed of the stream, which is crossed, and the road ascends and runs on to Lunek (8 miles) in the bed of the Chanju Nala. Coolies for the Darati Pass, 15,000 feet, can be procured through the kardars at Chanju Kothi. A halt is usually made, on the way to the pass, at Kalpra, the last village, where arrangements are completed. There are good encamping grounds near the foot of the pass, where fuel is procurable. 

    The pass is very steep for 3,000 feet, and a little dangerous near the top. Care should be taken to avoid displacing stones. The crossing is difficult in May and June, but fairly easy from July when the snow has melted. The descent to Tindi is easy and rapid, and the whole distance from Kalpra can be done in two days. This road is fairly good all the way. Ponies and laden animals go as far as Sikh GrBt, where there is a rest-house. 


    Chamba to Tindi in Chamba Lahul Via Marhu Pass

    The road to Tindi via the Marhn Pass goes from Bhangor to Bhagai (10 miles) and Maowa (8 miles), in the Charar Nala. It is long and tedious but easy. From Maowa, where coolies are procured, the road ascends gradually to the camp on a flat near the stream at the foot of the pass. 

    The ascent from there to the pass is long but not steep like the Darati. The descent is over the rock to the camp in the bed of the stream. The third march, his along the mountain slopes to Tindi and is quite easy. There is a good rest-house at Tindi. 
    Ordinary supplies are procurable ah each stage. 

    Chamba to Brahmaur via Saho. 

    Salzo Road-The Saho road also starts from the capital and, after crossing the Sal Nala, runs up its right bank to Saho (8 miles). 
    From Saho it ascends the Keri Nala and crosses the Panjungla Range to Sacraina (12 miles) and over the Bailj Range to Bailj (12 miles) and Kanaiter (6 miles), finally crossing the Tundahen Range by the Bagair Pass to Manda' (16 miles); from there, one branch crosses the Tundahen Nala to Badra (6 miles) and joins the road to the Kali- Cho Pass and another branch runs to Bagra (8 miles) and Bhamour (8 miles). Ponies can go to Saho, where there is a rest-house; beyond this, the road is very long rough. Ordinary supplies are procurable at each stage. 

    Chamba to Brahmaur via Jamwar. 

    Jamwar Road -From Chamba also a road rises to Jamwar (6 miles) and runs along the crest of the Jamar ridge to Bara Jamwar. It then descends to Lilh (10 miles) and Guh and follows up the Beljedi Nala by Batot (8 miles) to Girir, (8 miles); finally crossing the Tundah Range by the Jhundal Pass to Manda (12 miles), and on by Bargra to Bharmour (14 miles). Ponies can go as far as Jamwar, and so far the road is good, but onwards it is very rough. There is a State bungalow at Jamwar for which special permission is necessary from His Highness the Raja. 

    Ulansa to Bara Bangahal. 

    Bara Bangahal Road -From Ulansa the road follows the left bank of the Ravi to Bara Bangahal. The stages are- Chanota, 12 miles; Holi, 12 miles; Garoh, 8 miles; Chanair, 12 miles; Sind, 10 miles; Kanaur, 8 miles, and Bara Banghal 10 miles. This road is fit for pedestrians only, and in many places is rough and dangerous, especially between Chanair and Bangahal. As far as Chanair it is fairly good. It then crosses to the right bank. 

    Roads cross the Dhaula Dhar from the Ravi Valley to Kangra by numerous passes, but the principle is the following:-Bohar Pass, 11,602 feet from Bakan or Rasu to Boh in Rihlu, Baleni Pass, 11,900 feet from Basu or Piyur to Dareni in Rihlu; Indrahar Pass, 14,150 feet, from Kuarsi to Dharmsala; Wahar Pass, 14,101 feet, from Chanair to Palampur; Sarai Pass, 14,082 feet, from Sarai to Baijnath. None of the passes are passable for ponies; two marches. 

    From Bara Bangahal roads cross the Kalihin Pass in the Bara Bangahal Range, to Kulu the Makori, Gauri, and Thamsar Passes in the Dhaula Dhar to Chhota Bangahal, and the Chobu Pass to Kugti. These Passes are all 16,000 to 17,000 feet and the roads rough. 

    Chamba to Kashmir wins Kishtwar

    Bhaderwah Road-This a road runs down the right bank (of the Ravi to Kiyani and ascending to Pukhri, 8 miles from Chamba, descends to the Kothi bridge over the Siyul Nala and reaches Sundla (13 miles). It then rises to Salooni, on the Prithvi Jor Ridge, and gradually descends to the Pala bridge and runs on to Kihar and. Langera (14 miles). The whole of this road, from Sundla, near the Kothi bridge, to Langera is new. 

    The old road from Sundla follows the right bank of the Siyul to Manjir, rises to Salooni, and descends to cross the Siyul at the Kalor bridge, rejoining the new road at Pala bridge. From Bhandal the old road follows the left bank of the Siyul to Langera (12 miles) and is very rough in places. Thence it ascends the Pidari Pass 10,000 feet and descends rapidly to Thanala in Bhadralvah (16 miles). 

    The Bhadrawih road is good, with easy gradients as far as Bhandal, and when finished, pack animals will be able to go all the way t,o Langera. Ponies go through to Bhadrawah, but parts of' the road on the Padari Pass are rough and somewhat unsafe for animals. The descent to thanala is very steep. 

    There are rest-houses at Sundla, Kihar, Bhandal, and Langera. From Tllanala to Bhadrawah the road is very good. There is a comfortable rest-house at Bhaderwah and supplies are easily obtained. The road then ascends to Chinta (4 miles) and the top of the Jaura ridge, along which it runs to Jaura (12 miles). Extensive views are obtained of the Chenab Valley. From Jaura there is a rapid descent to Jangalwiir (8 miles) near the Chenab. The road then runs up the left bank of the Cheniib to Kandani (12 miles) and Kashtwiir (12 miles) and is fairly level and good all the way. The same coolies should be taken from Jangal- war to Kishtwar as they are difficult to obtain at Khndani without previous notice to the TahsildBr of Kashtwar. A new road on this route has now been made from Bhadrawah to Jaura vici Jai, on a low level, avoiding the steep ascent vid Chinta: distance.-Jai 8 miles and Jaurs 8 miles.

    Kishtwar to Kashmir. 

    After leaving the Chaugan the road descends to the Chenab which is crossed by a wire suspension bridge. It then runs up the left bank of the Maru Wardwan river for some miles and after crossing enters the ravine of the Chhtru stream and follows the right bank to near Mogal Maidan. It then crosses to the left bank, passes Mogal Maidan, and runs on to Chatru (16 miles). Beyond Chatru the road continues to ascend through a narrow valley to the foot of the pass at Sinthan (13 miles). There is no village but fuel is abundant. The next stage is over the Sinthan Pass, 12,300 feet to Dusu (14 miles). The ascent is easy and the descent a, after the first mile or two is through the forest and very pleasant marching. 

    From Dusu to Achibal(l6 miles) is an easy march and about halfway the Kashmir plain bursts into view- a most fascinating panorama. From Achibal to Islamabad is 7 miles near which at Khanbal boats are available for the journey down the Jhelum to Srinagar. Ponies and pack animals can go all the way from Kishtwar to Islamabad. No. 

    Bhaderwah to Kashmir via Braribal Pass

    The road descends the left bank of the Bhaderwah Nala to Kilar (12 miles) and on to the Chandra Bhaga which is crossed by a swing bridge to reach Doda (10 miles). From Doda, which is on an open plain, the road ascends the Lidar Nala to Bagwan (7 miles), Gayi (9 miles), and camp (7 miles). It then crosses the Braribal Pass (13,200 feet) and descends to Jagat-khana (13 miles) and Shahabad (10 miles). 

    From Shahabad the road is almost level to Islamabad (16 miles). This road is good all the way, but not passable for ponies, and ordinary supplies are procurable, especially at Doda. 

    Bhadrawah to Kashmir via Banihal Pass. 

    The road follows the Bhaderwah Nala to Kilar (12 miles) and then to a point opposite Doda, where it joins the main road from Kishtwar to Jammu. The next stages are Kaleni (12 miles), Asar (12 miles), Batoti (12 miles), and Ramban (12 miles). Here the Chandra Bhaga is crossed by a suspension bridge and the road ascends to Ramos (15 Ales) and Banihal (10 miles) and descends to Verinag (10 miles), and Islamabad (19 miles). The new motor road now runs from Batot. 
    Bhaderwah was formerly the capital of a small Native State embracing the Bhaderwah and Balesa Valleys. It was ruled by a branch of the family that formerly ruled in Basohli and which was, in turn, an offshoot from Kulu. The place was originally a jagir or private estate under Basohli and became independent about the time of Akbar. In the eighteenth century it was subject to Jammu but later came under the control of Chamba and was annexed by that State about 1920. 

    It was finally ceded to Jammu in 1846-7. The Rajas resided in the town but the palace has now disappeared. One of the later Chiefs built the fort. The territory extended to the Chenab and included the Bhadrawah and Balesa Valleys down to the Chenab. 

    Chamba to Kashtwar via Balesa

    This route follows the Bhaderwah road by Sundla (13 miles) to Salooni here it descends to cross the Siyul at the Kalor bridge and rises to Diyur (8 miles). It then crosses the ridge to the Khangu rest-house (10 miles) and descends to the Barnota Nala and runs on to Makan (10 miles). 

    An alternative route leaves the Pangi road beyond Tisa (33 miles) and crosses the Baira Nala to Sai (6 miles). It then ascends the left bank of the Barnotla Nala to Makan (12 miles) where it joins the previous road. The road then crosses the Barari Pass (12,000 feet) in the Dagani Dhar and descends to Jagaser in Balesa (16 miles); the pass is easy but takes two days. Does the route then descend the Kalguni Nala? through pretty scenery to Neli (10 miles). An alternative road to Neli leaves the Bhaderwah road near Bhandal (28 miles) and ascending the Sanghani Nalk to Gamgul (10 miles) crosses the Dagani Pass (12,852 feet) and descends to Bhanencha (12 miles) joining the previous road near Kot. 

    The pass is easy. Coolies go all the way from Bhandal. The main road from Neli follows the right bank of Kalgumi Nala and after crossing a ridge depends on' the Delenger or Balesa Nala and rises to Pringle(l0 miles). An alternative route to Pringal follows the Pangi road to Sai (39 miles) and ascends the Mangli Nala to Mangli (10 miles) It then crosses the Mailwar Pass (13,027 feet), in two marches to Manu in Upper Balesa (20 miles); and descends the right bank of the Delenger Nalit to Batoli (10 miles) and Pringal (10 miles). 

    From Pringal the road then rises to cross the watershed between the Balesa and Bhonjwah Nalas (9,500 feet) and descends steeply through the forest to the latter Nala which crosses and rises to Jawalapur in Bhonjwah (12 miles). From this point, it again rises crosses another ridge (9,500 feet), and descends through dense forest to the Surur Nala, after crossing which it ascends to Surur (12 miles). 

    It then runs along the mountain slopes, overlooking the Chandra Bhaga at a high level, to Sarteli (10 miles) and Kishtwar (12 miles). From Jawalapur there is an alternative route, which descends the Bhonj wah Nala and joins the lower road from Jangal- war to Kishtwar at the bridge over the Surur Nala. From Jawalapur also a road crosses the high ridge to Gauri in the upper Surur Nala (8 miles) and amends the Nala to Bhanger (10 miles) to cross the Panji Pass (15,000 feet) to Padar (24 miles); this road enters Padar near the hot springs. It is fairly easy, but the pass is steep near the summit. Coolies go all the way from Gauri to Padar, two marches. All ordinary supplies, including fowls and eggs, are procurable in Balesa and Bhonjwah

    Kashtwar to Maru Wardwan and Suru. 

    On leaving the Kishtwar plain the road descends to the Chandra Bhaga, crosses by a wire suspension bridge, and rises steeply to Palmar (12 miles). It then winds around a ridge and runs up the left side of the Maru Wardwan Valley at a high level to Ekhali (10 miles) and Danchin (12 miles). 

    Dachin is an open flat where several streams meet and are very pretty. The road then crosses to the right bank and runs up through forest almost to Hanzal (14 miles). Reaches of the Maru Wardwan, with the scenery generally, are very striking. The next stage after leaving the forest traverses the Maru plain, four miles long and one broad, and the halting-place is at Maru (8 miles). Near this, in a side valley, are some hot springs. Above Maru, the valley is again narrow, but the road is good, and the scenery very beautiful to Inshin (16 miles) which is counted two marches from Maru. 

    The road crosses to the left bank, a few miles above Maru. No villages on the way. The Wardwan Valley, about half a mile wide, extends from Inshin to Suknes (16 miles), and for most of the way, a road runs on both sides of the river which is spanned by several bridges. At Suknes coolies are engaged for the Bhot Kol and Yadangshan Passes in the Western Himalaya, leading to Suru. The stages via the Bhot Kol Pass are Wompet or Dumbhoi (8 miles), camp in Bhotkol Nala (12 miles), Donera, overpass (14,400 feet), (12 miles), Suru (10 miles). The stages vid the Yadangshan pass is- Wompet or Dumbhoi (8 miles), camp in Moreskhol Nala (10 miles). Siri Marg, overpass (15,000, feet), (10 miles), Suru (15 miles). Yaks and ponies cross both passes, but on the Bhot Kol there is a long glacier with crevices that are dangerous in autumn; the Yadangshan has no glacier and is easy. For full information about these routes see Guide to Kashmir. 
    Kishtwar
    Kishtwar is situated on a large plain 5,000 feet above sea-level and the Chandra Bhaga or Chenab river flows in a deep gorge along the northern and western margins 
    The town was formerly the capital of a Native State founded about A. D. 1000 by a branch of the same family now ruling in Suket, Mandi, and Keonthal and descended from the ancient rulers of Gour in Bengal. The State included the entire Chenab Valley from the Lidrhri Nala to Ramban, and also the Maru Wardwan Valley. The Rajas resided in the fort. The family was originally Rajput but became Muhammadan in the time of Aurangzeb. The State was overturned in A. D. 1820 by Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu, and annexed to the Sikh Kingdom. Shah Shuja of Kabul found refuge at Kishtwar for two years after escaping from Lahore in 1815. There is nothing special about the place except the Chaugk, a mile north of the town, which is the largest in the hills. The two ziarats or places of pilgrimage for Muhammadans one in the town and the other at the south end of the Chaugan are famous all through the hills. 

    Chamba to Jammu via Basohli. 

    The first three stages-Bathri (14 miles), Sandham (12 miles), Basohli (7 miles)-are on the Sandhara road. Basohli may also be reached from Dunera on the Dalhousie road, and the Ravi is crossed by a ferry opposite the town. From Basohli the road runs through a dun or valley in the Siwa- like extending from the Ravi to Dansal near Jammu. The stages are Mandpur (12 miles), Samburta (12 miles). At the last place, there is an old Sikh fort, in ruins. Rajkot (12 miles), formerly called Mankot, was the capital of a petty Native State and has an old fort, the residence of its former Rajas. 
    At the next stage Mansar (10 miles) there is a small lake about a mile long, and at Saroin Sar (10 miles) another lake about half-a-mile long; both of these are places of pilgrimage. The road then passes over some low hills and crosses the Tawi, a little above Jammu (12 miles) This road, though rough in places, is good all the way but is difficult in the rainy season a,s the Ujh river has to be forded between Mandpur and Samburta and the Basanter to the west of Ramkot. 
    Basohli was the capital!al of a Native State founded about the eighth or ninth century by a cadet of the Kulu family. The original capital was at Balor, ancient Vallapura, referred to in the Rajatarangini some twelve or fourteen miles west of Basohli, where the old palace and fortifications are still to be seen. The State was subjected by the Sikhs and finally annexed to Jammu in 1836. Two small States- Bhadu-Puddoo of the map-and Bhaderwah were offshoots from Balor. The palace of the Rajas at Basohli now in a ruinous condition must have been a fine building in its day.

    Jammu to Kashmir via Banihal Pass 

    This road is newly made for motor traffic. From Jammu, it runs up the Tawi Valley to Udhampur (42 miles). A mile or two further on begins the long climb to the Patnitop, 6,647 feet, passing near Chaneni on the way. The Tawi stream up in which the road ascends is very beautiful and the view from the pass is very striking-showing range upon range of low hills to the south and the Pir Panjal to the north. 

    A descent is then made to Batot where there is also a Dak bungalow in the Chenab Valley, and a further descent to Ramban where the Chenab is crossed by a suspension bridge. Thence begins the long ascent up the valley of the Bichlari stream to Banihal, where there is another dak bungalow near the south end of the tunnel piercing the pass. The tunnel is one furlong in length and 8,989 feet above sea level. Snow lies well into May. From both ends of the tunnel, a magnificent view is obtained of the outer hills towards the south and of the Kashmir Valley towards the north. The descent then begins past Manda and on to Khanbal on the Jhelum near Islamabad, where the boat may be taken to Srinagar or the journey completed by the motor. 

    From Batot to Khanbal is 96 miles and from Khanbal to Srinagar 33 miles, making the whole distance from Jammu 313 miles. There are dak bungalows at Jammu, Udhampnr, Batot, Banihal, and Khanbal. Chaneni was formerly a Native State under its own Rajas, who ruled it for many years from about A. D. 820 to 1822 when it was annexed to Jammu State. The present Raja lives in his family palace in the town. 

    Jammu to Kishtwar

    Jammu, the capital of Jammu and Kashmir State, is a terminus of the North-Western Railway. The first three stages on this route-Dansal (15 miles), Udhampur (12 miles), and Dramtal (12 miles)-are in the Outer Bills. The road then passes near Chaneni and ascends steeply to the Singpal Pass 6,800 feet, and descends to Batoti (12 miles). It then follows up the left bank of the Chenab at a high level to Asar (16 miles); and Kaleni (15 miles). Descending to cross the Bhaderwah Nala, it runs on to Siwa (12 miles), Bhela (10 miles), and Jangalwar (12 miles). Above Jangalwar it drops to the bank of the river, and at Tantari crosses the Balesa Nala, and a couple of miles further on, the Surur Nala. Some miles on is Sih ghat or the Leopard's Leap, a narrow rocky gorge. 
    At Kandani (12 miles), the next stage, coolies or supplies are difficult to procure, unless notice has been sent to the Tahsildar of KashtwQr. After crossing the Shatli Nal& the road follows up the river ravine, at a low level, and finally ascends to Kashtwar (12 miles). Ponies go all the way and ordinary supplies are procurable. Bhaderwah is reached in two stages from Kaleni. 

    Pathankot to Bhaderwah via Basohli. 

    The first stage is Madhapur (10 miles) at the head of the Bari Doab Canal. Here the Ravi is crossed by a ferry, and the next stages are Thain (15 miles) in the low hills and 
    Basohli (Ihniles); height 2,170 feet, once the capital of a Native State, with the palace of the Rajas, now in ruins. The road then ascends gently to Bhund (13 miles) and more steeply on the next stage t.0 cross a ridge, descending to Bani (16 miles). It then runs up the left bank of the Siowa river, crosses a ridge and drops to Raulka or Sarteli (14 miles), and crosses the Chattardhar Pass (10,000 feet), to Basti (1.6 miles) and Bhsdrawah. (6 miles). 


    This road is in Jammu territory after crossing the Ravi and is fairly good all the way ponies go through to Bhaderwah. Supplies are easily procured. 

    Pathankot to Kulu. 

    After leaving the Railway Terminus at Pathankot the road runs on the level to Nurpur (16 miles). crossing the Chakki stream halfway by the Lyall Viaduct. It then winds around the- hill on which stand the ruins of the old Fort of Nurpur and enters the undulating country of the Shivaliks. Farther on is Kotila (13 miles), also with an ancient fort, and at Shahpur (11 miles) the road enters the Kangra Valley. 

    The main road runs on through the valley on the level to Palampur (22 miles). A few miles beyond Shahpur the road t.o Dharmshala (10 miles) and Dadh (10 miles) ascends on the left and rejoins the main road near Palampur (10 miles). From Shahpur a road also runs to Kangra, (1 3 miles), and by Ranita1, Jawalamukhi, Nadaun, Hamirpur, and Bilaspur to Shimla. From Ranital a road goes to via Dehra Gopipur. The main road beyond Palampur runs on to Baijnath (10 miles) mostly through tea gardens all the way. At Baijnath (Vidiyanathpur) the ancient temple should be visited, erected-in A. D. 1204, as shown by the inscriptions on the slabs on the porch. In these inscriptions, the place is called Kiragrhma, and it was the residence and patrimony of a Rana or hill baron whose castle stood on or near the site of the present dak bungalow. 

    Beyond Baijnath the road enters the dun or narrow valley of Bir Banghal, through which it runs to Dhelu (12 miles). The bungalow is prettily situated on a spur overlooking the valley, and above it is an old hill fort. A few miles farther on is the Guma salt mine, worked by Mandi State, and beyond it, the upper road to Kulu leaves the main road and ascends the mountain slopes to Jhatingri (11 miles). It then descends to cross the Uhl river by a good bridge and rises by a long sweep to Bhadwani (13 miles). 

    Crossing the Bhubu Pass 9,480 feet it drops through the forest to karaun (10 miles) and follows the right bank of the Sarwari Nala to Sultanpur (8 miles). From Baijnath to the top of the Bhubu Pass, the road is in Mandi territory, and there are good bungalows all the way. This road is closed from December till March when the Bhubu Pass is under the snow, and the route via the Dulachi Pass in the same range must then be followed. 

    This route runs via Hurla (12 miles) and leaves the Mandi cart road at Drang (I2 miles), two marches on from Dhelu, where also there are salt mines and runs on the level to a ridge where it meets the road from Mandi. It then descends to cross the Uhl river by a suspension bridge and ascends a tributary of the Uhl for fire miles to Kataula (12 miles). Thence a steep ascent for nine miles leads to the summit of the Dulachi Pass (6,760 feet) over bare hill slopes, and then descent by many windings through beautiful forest scenery to Bajaura (18 miles), near the bank of the Beas. Here the old temple at Hat should be visited a full description of which is to be found in the Archeological Survey Report for 1909-10. Bungalows at Hurla ran Katarila and Bajaura. From Bajaura to Sultanpur (9 miles) the road runs on the level up the right bank of the Beas. 

    Kullu to Simla via Narkanda

    Sultanpur to Bajaura (9 miles) the road is level and runs down the right bank of the Beas. At Bhuin the river is spanned by the Duff-Dunbar bridge for the branch road to Manikaran in the Parbati Valley, (3 marches) where there are hot springs. The main road continues to Larji (11 miles) with an easy gradient through rich cultivated fields in Mandi territory and then crosses to the left bank by a suspension bridge. The Beas gorge at Larji is a grand sight and the new motor road from there to Mandi (25 miles), will shortly be completed, linking up Kullu with the plains. 
    At Larji the road leaves the Beas and ascends the pretty Tirthan river at first on the right bank in Saraj tehsil of Kullu and then crosses by a cantilever bridge to the Mandi side, and on to Manglor. 

    At Manglor there is an old staging bungalow, but with no system of supplier-. Here you cross to the Saraj side veer round to the left and recross at Banjar (12 miles), where there is a fine new bungalow at the junction of the Jibhi and Tirthan streams. Banjar is about a mile farther on, with tehsil, post office, Sarai and school, and also a dispensary. Banjar to Shoja (10 miles) is a steep march up the pretty Jibhi torrent, through forests of deodar, the whole valley being well wooded. 

    At Shoja there is a good bungalow but very little in the way of a village. The next march from Shoja to Khanag (7 miles) is over the Jalori Pass, 10,650 feet, through the forest part of May. A fine view of the snowy range is obtained from the summit, and snow lies on the pass from November to April. At - Khanag there is a good bungalow on a pleasant site, looking down into the Satluj Valley.  From Khanag the road continues to descend the Ani torrent, a very hot march in summer. The scenery is beautiful being all forest glen. At Ani (9 miles) there is a good * [The old line after crossing the Jalori Pass runs by Rot, Chawai and Dalash to the Luhri bridge, and Kotgarh. ]
    bungalow, and nearby is the Salvation Army settlement. The road then drops to the Satluj, which is crossed by a suspension bridge and runs on the level to Luhri (11 miles) where there is a comfortable bungalow. From there a steep ascent is made to Narkanda (12 miles) on the Hindustan- Tibet road. 
    The other marches to Shimla are Matiana (11 miles), Theog (11 miles), Fagu (5 miles), Shimla (12 miles) all on the Hindustan-Tibet road with a dak bungalow at each stage. 

    Kullu to Shimla via Mandi. 

    This road is open all year-round, and after the completion of the motor and cart road from Larji to Mandi, it will be almost level all the way. At present, the route crosses the Dulachi Pass from Bajaura to Kataula (18 miles) and Mandi (12 miles). It then runs on the level through the Balh Plain to Suket (14 miles) and Dehar (12 miles) and by the bridge over the Satluj on to Bilaspur and by Namuli and Arki to Shimla. South of Mandi the main cart road from Palampur branches off vid Una to Hoshiarpur. There are rest-houses all the way on both roads. 

    Kullu to Rampur Bushahr. 

    This route leaves the main Shimla road at Banjar and ascends the valley of the Tirthan to Bathad (12 miles), it then crosses the Bashleo Pass 10,750 feet in the Jalori Range and descends to Sarahan (11 miles), and runs on to Chunagahi (11 miles) and Rampur (9 miles). The Bashleo Pass is very steep and rocky and is closed with snow in winter. 

    Kullu to Leh in Ladakh. 

    After passing Sultanpur the main road divides, one runs on the level up the right bank of the Beas by Raisin, and Dobi to Katrain (11 miles), and the other crosses to the left bank and ascends to Nagar. Three bridges span the river at or near the places named, each carrying a road to Nagar (11 miles), which stands on the high ground at the foot of the hills opposite Katrain. At Manali (12 miles), the next stage, the road crosses to the left bank and meets that from Nagar which passes through Jagatsukh. 
    From Manali is a short march to Kothi (6 miles). The bungalow is situated picturesquely on a ridge overlooking the valley here very narrow. Above the junction, with the Solang, the road ascends the cliffs where near Kothi the Beas flows for 3,000 yards through a deep chasm, not more than twenty feet wide at the top. The ascent to the Rohtang Pass (13,400 feet), begins at rahla, a few miles on, where there is a rest-house, and the road rises by many windings to the summit from whence an extensive grew of the Chandra Valley in Lahul is obtained. The contrast is striking between the luxuriant vegetation of Kullu and the bare rocks of Lahul. 

    After descending to Koksar bungalow (13 miles) the Chandra river is crossed by a bridge and the road runs on to Sisu (12 miles) and Gondhla (7 miles); it then falls gradually to the junction of the Chandra and Bhaga rivers at Tandi, crosses the Bhaga and ascends the right bank to Keylong (10 miles). the road is very good all the way from Sultanpur, and there is a bungalow- at each halting 
    At Keylong all arrangements must be made for the onward journey and ponies are best* for transport,. Tents are necessary as there are no rest-houses beyond Patseo. 
    The road ascends the right bank of the Bhaga river at a high level, passes Kolang, and reaches the rest-house at Jispa (13 miles). narcha marks the inner line, beyond which no traveler may  go without the permission of the Deputy Commissioner of Kangra. The road is level to Darcha (12,000 feet) and then ascends steeply to Patseo (10 miles). 

    Hare a fair is held yearly in July and August for a month for traders from Ladakh and the plains. Most of the trade is done by barter. There is good rest-house. 

    The road now crosses the stream and rises by an easy gradient to Zingzingbar (6 miles). The tree vegetation, chiefly pencil cedar, fairly abundant in Lahul, now ceases and for many marches the only fuel available is a kind of low shrub called burtze, which is found in good quantity at most of the stages. 

    Above Zingzingbar the road again crosses the stream and ascends the Baralacha Pass (16,200 feet), passes the beautiful Surajtal Lake, and reaching the top descends the ravine of the Yunan stream, passes the Yunantso Lake and crossing a large moraine, drops to Keylong (12 miles). There it crosses the Yunan stream forming the headwaters of the Lingti river and runs on to the Lingti Plain (14 miles). 

    Here the pony men usually prefer to rest for a day so as to give their animals a good feed, before the heavy ascent to the Lacha- lung Pass. Lingti Plain is over 14,000 feet above the sea, and in the middle is the Falung-danda, a great rock marking the boundary between British and Kashmir territories. On the next march, the Tsarap river must be forded L early in the day, and some miles on the road turns up a ravine and ascends steeply to Lacha (15 miles). Camp at the final climb to the Lachalung Pass at a height of 16,000 feet. 

    After crossing the pass (17100 feet) there is a long and gradual descent to Trarnbok (8 miles) in the bed of the - Surnkiyel stream. Camp beneath great overhanging cliffs. r the road then runs down the ravine, crossing and recrossing with an easy gradient to Sumkiyel (10 miles). The two marches from Lacha can be done in one day, and it is best to camp beside the stream. At Sumkivel a fairly steep ascent leads up to the Kiang Chu Maidan, a long and wide sandy plain at 16,000 feet. There are some springs on the plain but the water is impure. After crossing the plain, where the 
    Kiang or wild ass may often be seen in herds, the road bends to the right along a narrower plain at the same level and reaches Rukchen (15 miles). Here a settlement of Champas or nomads is usually found, and they supply yaks for the journey to Gya. 


    From Rukchen to Debring (14 miles) at the foot of the Taklung Pass, the road still runs through the same narrow valley over sandy wastes, which may at one time have been the bed of a large lake stretching from the Lachalung to the Taklung Pass. The latter pass, 17,600 feet is easy, and the road then drops to a ravine down which it runs to Gya, (14 miles). This is the first village in Ladakh at 12,000 feet on the bank of the Gya river a tributary of the Indus. Here fresh yaks are procured for the journey to Leh. 

    The whole of the next march is in the narrow ravine of the Gya stream and the road is chiefly on the left bank, some villages are passed, and tree vegetation again appears though scanty. The stage is at Upshi (14 miles) on the left bank of the Indus. Prom Gya onward there is a serai at each stage and ordinary supplies are procurable. 
    The road down the Indus valley is good and the march to Martsalung (10 miles) easy. Two miles down, the Hernia monastery should be visited. It is a little off the road in a side ravine, at 11,500 feet. Chushot or Gulabbagh (12 miles) is the next stage, and a few miles on the Indus is crossed by a wooden bridge, followed by a long ascent over a sandy and stony plain to Leh (8 miles), passing a mini wall a mile long. 

    Kulu to Spiti and Wangtu.

    This road leaves the main Kulu road at JagatSukh and ascends the Raini Valley to Chika (9 miles). On the next stage the Hamta Pass (14,000 feet), is crossed and the road then descends to the left bank of the Chandra river, where it meets the road from Lahul, opposite the site of old Koksar, and runs on to Chatru (9 miles, 11500 feet). From Chatru to Phuti Runi (8 miles, 12,000 feet), the road is easy hut rough. One stream must be forded early, otherwise, a detour of 1) miles is necessary. From Phuti Runi to Karcha is 10 miles, (12,500 feet) of which six miles are severe on coolies. A glacier is crossed on starting and also at four miles the Shigri stream and large Shigri glacier. The road here is very bad, following a tortuous course over a glacier and large moraine and then in the river bed, camp on grass or shingle; only river water. 

    The next march is over the Kunzum Pass (1.4,931 feet), to Losar in Spiti (14 miles, 13,395 feet). A side. the stream must be crossed early, and the ascent and descent are both easy. The valley of the Spiti river is open, wit,h the confluence of several streams, and a great expanse of the shingle. The road onward is almost level to Losar; a large valley where some supplies are procurable. 

    From Losar to Kioto is 9 miles (13,000 feet). On this march, the Spiti river has to be forded, but it is an easy road. Loads on these marches should be made up before starting, and payment made at the end of the march for the arranged number, as coolies are sometimes changed on the way. 

    The next march is from Kioto to Kibber (12 miles, 13,000 feet). The first three miles are easy as far as large nala animals taking a low road. The other road rises three miles to a pass with a large marg on the top and water on the right. The next three miles are down to the streams and very dry; change of coolies at nine miles. 
    Farther on is a fine and precipitous gorge and the road descends to the bottom and crosses to the other side to Kibar, a large and dirty village with a bad camp. This marks the Inner Line. 
    From Kibar to Lara (12,500 feet) is 12 miles 




















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