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The Abode of Snow [ Journey from Chinese Tibet to the Indian Caucasus, through the upper valleys of the Himalaya ]

The abode of snow journy
The Abode of Snow
    IN the twenty-ninth chapter of this work, I have fully explained how the phrase "Abode of Snow " is a literal translation of the Sanskrit compound " Himalaya," and therefore forms an appropriate title for a work treating of those giant mountains. The Abode of Snow par excellence is not in the Himalaya, or even in the Arctic region, but (setting Saturn aside) in the Antarctic region. Owing to the greater preponderance of ocean in the southern hemisphere, the greatest accumulation of ice is around the South Pole and hence the not improbable theory that, when the accumulation has reached a certain point, the balance of the earth must be suddenly destroyed, and this orb shall almost. instantaneously turn transversely to its axis, moving the great oceans, and so producing one of those cyclical catastrophes which, there is some reason to believe, have before now interfered with the development and the civilization of the human race.

    How near such a catastrophe may be, and whether, when it occurs, a few just men (and, it is to be hoped, women also) will certainly be left in the upper valleys of the Himalaya, I am unable to say but it is well to know that there is an elevated and habitable region of the earth which is likely to be left underpopulated even by such an event as that just alluded to. 

    Whether humanity will lose or gain by having to begin again from the simple starting-point of " Om mani Padma haun " is also a subject on which I feel a little uncertain, but we may at least hope that the jewel in the lotus will not be lost that what has accrued to it from the effort and the agony of so many thousand years, of so many hundreds of human generations, may pass over to the inhabitants of newly-formed earth. And when we come to consider what the grand valuable results of this our awful. striving, our dread history, have been, most of what we are given to boasting of will have to be relinquished as worthless, and we may, even as Christians, be glad to take refuge in the comprehensive Lama prayer, " O God, consider the jewel in the lotus. Thy will be done." For, however appalling may have been the amount of human crime and woe, however pitiable our mistakes and ineffectual our struggles, there has ever been a jewel in the rank lotus of human life-something beautiful in it which is not of it, yet is mysteriously connected with, and hidden within, it. 

    Viewed in this light the Lama prayer has a touching sign once and is not without a great lesson for us all.‘PREFACE. but the Himalaya may have many visitors before that other Abode of Snow turns things topsy-turvy if it ever do so and these, I hope, may find my book of some service. It was not for them, however, that this volume was written, but for those who have never seen and may never see the Himalaya. I have sought, in however imperfect a manner, to enable such readers in some degree to realize what these great mountains are, what scenes of beauty and grandeur they present-what are the character of the simple people who dwell among them-and what are the incidents the traveler meets with, his means of conveyance, and his mode of life. 

    In attempting this I have had to struggle with what a kindly critic has called "the utterly unknown," and have been compelled, as a necessary part of the enterprise, to make my pages bristle with names and other words which are quite unfamiliar, and indeed for the most part entirely new, to the ordinary English reader-the very individual whose interest I want to engage. 

    It has also been necessary to introduce some details of physical science, ethnology, archaeology, and history; but these have been subordinated to the general aim of producing an intelligible idea of the region described. Perhaps I may be excused for suggesting that some little effort on the reader's part is also called for if indeed my labors are of any value,-which I am by no means sure of. If there were any merit at a1l in my journey it lay only in the condition of the body in which I commenced PREFACE.

    It and carried it through and in the determination with which, despite serious discouragement, I pursued what appeared to be a desperate remedy. My original intention was only to visit Mussoorie and Shimlaand have a distant view of the Himalaya, but the first glimpse of the Jumnotri and Gangotri peaks excited longings which there was no need to restrain, and I soon perceived that the air of the hill-stations could be of no use to me. 

    So I set off from Shimla, determined above all things to keep as high up as I could, and to have a snowy range between me and the Indian monsoon, and then, so far as consonant with that, to visit as many places of interest as possible. It probably would have been better had I been able to take more notes on the way; but the great fatigue of the journey, and the strain arising from my being alone, were rather too much for me; and sometimes, for several days at a time, I could do no more than note down the name of the village where we camped, and the temperature at daybreak.

    There are many subjects, especially relating to the latter part of my journey, on which I wished to write at length, but found it inexpedient to do so in order not longer to delay the publication of this volume. As it is, I feel deeply indebted for its having been written at all to the encouragement, consideration, and advice of Mr. Blackwood, the Editor of the famous magazine which bears his name, and in which a great part, but not the whole, of this narrative originally appeared.

    From the outset he sympathized warmly with my plan, and throughout he never failed to cheer my flagging spirits with generous praise, not to speak of other encouragement. Then he gave me a great deal of admirable advice. There is nothing that is commoner in this world than advice-nothing that is showered down upon one with more liberal profusion; but there is nothing rarer than judicious useful advice, the first condition of which is a sympathetic appreciation of what one would be it and it was this invaluable kind of advice which Mr. Blackwood freely tendered, pointing out where the treatment of my subject required expansion or aiding me by his knowledge of the world and profoundly appreciative literary taste.

    I am charmed to find that the lotus of literature contains such a jewel; and I must say, also, that both Messrs Blackwood did me essential service by the consideration they displayed when I sent in my manuscript unreasonable times, or altered proofs unmercifully at the last moment. Prince Bismarck said to count Arnim that the business of the Prussian Foreign Office could not be carried on if every Embassy were to conduct itself in the way that of Paris did, and I am sure the business of Maga could not be carried on at all if all its contributors were to try its patience as I did.

    I was much indebted also to an old friend-a genius loci and yet a man of European celebrity-who at the commencement of the appearance of my articles wrote to me in terms of the warmest encouragement. It may be that the favor with which the original articles appear to have been received may stand in the way of success now that they are reproduced in book-form so I may mention that, though long passages have not been added to this reprint, yet very many short ones have the interstices, so to speak, have been filled up greater accuracy has been attained, and the whole work has been recast, and that into a form which, I venture to believe, will make it more acceptable to all readers and I am led to hope that this may be so, among other reasons, by the fact that an American publishing house, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New Pork, has already prepared stereotyped plates of my book, with a .view to republication across the Atlantic.

    I feel some regret at not having been able either to repress my outbreaks on the difficult subject of the policy which ought to be permed in governing India, or to enter into the question in a fuller and more satisfactory manner than I have done; but while that subject lay beyond the proper scope of this work, it was one which the incidents of my journey naturally led me incidentally to refer to. I shall now only express my profound conviction, that if India were more directly governed with an enlightened view to our o m national interests than it is at present, it would be far better for the people of India; that it is the English in India, far more than the Bengal ryot, the educated native, or the Indian prince, who have a prefaceis reason to complain of the British Raj and that, under a superficial appearance of contentment and progress, there are gathering forces, mostly powerless for good, which may at any moment break forth with destructive fury, and are certain to do so whenever the energies of this country are more fully occupied elsewhere.

    It may be fancied that some of my descriptions of what I encountered among the Himalaya are somewhat exaggerated, and especially, I understand, the achievements of the little pony which carried me over the great Shigri glacier. A lady writing to me on this subject remarks: " Had I not known you to be scrupulously later truthful-in fact, fastidiously careful in the use of language, lest it might convey a shade of meaning beyond the thought, opinion, or fact, you wished to express-I might have regarded some of your descriptions as exaggerated; but I consider accuracy both verbal (that is, in the use of words) and in the statement of facts, to be one of your strong points-barring and excepting in the making of promises concerning letter-writing." So I have carefully reconsidered everything which might appear to bear the marks of an exaggeration, and, while finding almost nothing to alter on that ground, have thought it best to say nothing about one or two incidents which might appear incredible. I have only to add on this subject, that the state of Himalayan paths differs somewhat from year to year, according to the amount of the labor expended upon them, and the landslips which occur. The frontispiece and vignette to this volume are both taken from photographs of Messrs Shepherd & Bourne of Calcutta and Simla, who sent up an expedition into Spiti, and have provided the public with many admirable photographs of Himalayan scenery, all, or most of which, are obtainable in London. The frontispiece represents a view in the Shigri valley, or valley of Glaciers, looking down the Chandra river, near to where my first camp in that valley was pitched; but the snow has been brought down a little lower by the lithographer, to represent the scene as it was when I saw it; and the figure of a yak, along with something like my tent, have been added to the foreground. The vignette gives a very fair idea of a Himalayan highway, and of one of those jhulas, or twig-bridges. The bridge represented is in the upper Spiti valley, between Dankar and Mani, and differs from those usually to be met with only in that it does not cross a deeply-sun torrent. 

    The map which accompanies this volume has been based on a section of a large school-map of India by the Rev. J. Barton, published under the direction of committees of the Society for Promoting Christian knowledge and of the National Society. Mr. Trelawney Saunders, the Geographer to the East India Office, has given this school-map his valuable aid in bringing out preface. the various mountain-ranges to the north of India; and I found, after examining many maps, that no other which I could avail myself of would serve so well as the basis of a small map which would present at a glance the relative positions of the Panjab plain, the western Himalaya, the Hindu Kush, and the Karakorum Mountains. It seemed to me of much more important to convey a general idea of that vast and little-known district of the mountainous country than to present a detailed plan of my own route; for only those who are in, or are about to enter, the districts I traversed, will have any object in following me from stage to stage; and they can do so much better in Major Montgomerie's route-map and the fire mile to the much sheets of the Trigonometrical Survey, than in any map which it mold be advisable for me to prepare. At the same time, I have marked my route carefully on the map which I present; I have added to it a large number of places which I visited and have altered the spelling under that of my book. That matter of spelling has caused no little trouble. 

    It may not be generally known in this country that some years ago the Indian Government determined that Indian names should be spelled, at least in all official documents and publications, on one system. The system is based on the Jonesian-Wilsonian system of transliteration, as modified by the oriental societies, and has further been modified for practical purposes by Dr. W. W. Huntex, the head of the Indian Statistical Department. It partakes of the nature of a compromise, for accents are only used when especially necessary, and not as marking intonation, but only as indicating different vowel-sounds; and in the lists drawn up by Dr. Hunter, they are used very sparingly, and are omitted in some cases where they might have been added with advantage. I have followed these official lists in most instances, and the simple rules to be borne in mind to render their system of spelling intelligible is that 
    1. The long sounds broad, as in almond.
    2. The short a without an accent, has usually somewhat of a u sound, as the in rural.
    3. The with an accent, is like ee, or the in the ravine.
    4. The with an accent is like oo, or the in the bull.
    5. The e has a broad sound, aa the a in dare.
    6. The o sounds open, as in note.
    7. The ai sounds as in aisle, or the I in high.
    8. The au sounds like ou in the cloud.

    The most striking peculiarities of this system are the substitution of for 00, of for ee and the expression of broad a by 6. It totally ignores the genius of the English language and may be considered as another instance of that subjection of England to India which has been going on of late years. Another objection to it is, that it is not through going and is apt to land the and sounds in hopeless confusion; while a third is, that it is liable to mislead from its employment of accents in a different sense from that which they have, except incidentally, in European languages. But I doubt not these objections have been duly considered by the promoters of the system, and that they have followed the plan which seemed to them best fitted to procure uniformity in the spelling of Indian names, which is an end of so great importance that I have deemed it right to follow the Government system of spelling, but not as a very advanced always strictly accurate disciple. I am afraid an accent here and there has got on the wrong letter, and I have sometimes continued the use of double letters; but, in truth, to carry out this system with perfect accuracy one would require not only to have the names. before one written in an Indo-Aryan language, but also to be in the habit of dealing with them in such a language. Suffice that I have sacrificed my own comfort, if not also that of my readers, on the Indian government's linguistic altar. As one of the first to do so in this country, I trust I may be excused if my steps have occasionally tripped. When publishing in the Magazine I used the word " Himalaya," but that was only to break the usual custom of pronouncing "Himalaya," and now return to what is the more strictly accurate form.

    One word more, and I have done. Like many other men, I have written hundreds-I may say thousands of more or less insignificant articles in newspapers and periodicals; but, as the vast majority of my fellow laborers in that department of literature, I have sought to keep back my name rather than to thrust it obtrusively before the public in connection with productions which, however good or bad of their kind, had no individuality or importance sufficient to warrant they're being connected with any particular author. That is the usual feeling of public writers in this country, but there is always someone insensible to it A few months ago one of those candid friends who are the gentian and rhubarb of life, remarked to me: " What a stupid article that is on the CUTTLE-FISH which you have in ...... 

    I wonder you put your name to it." Now the cuttle-fish is a denizen of the ocean with which I am well acquainted, from its toughness as an article of diet, it has been the habit of my Hong-Kong butler to give me a curry of it whenever he was displeased with me, adding, when he saw my frown, the dubious consolation: " Eh! No likey? Linked he makes you likey to-mollow (to-morrow) cully too much."But to write articles on the cuttle-fish was, I knew, out of my line; and I was shocked at having my name pointed out to me, printed in full, at the bottom of such an article. At first, I cherished the hope that this was the work of some practical humourist; but found, on inquiry, that this alters ego.

    I know how vain it is to hope that any pushing young Scotchman will consent to preach behind a screen if he has any opportunity of doing so in front of it; therefore I address no remonstrance or request to the ichthyologist himself. But, would not some Scotch University--say Aberdeen or Glasgow-have the goodness to make a distinction between us by conferring upon him the degree of D.D., L.L.D., or whatever other high academical distinctions arduous researches into the character of the cuttle-fish may justify

    CHAPTER I - Modern Travel influences  of Himalaya 

    HAVE heard of an American backwoodsman who, on finding some people camping about twenty miles from his log cabin, rushed back in consternation to his wife and exclaimed, "Pack thee up, Martha-pack thee up !it's getting altogether too crowded hereabouts." The annoyance which this worthy complained of is very generally felt at present; and, go almost where he may, the lover of peace and solitude will soon have reason to complain that the country around him is becoming" altogether too crowded." As for the enterprising and exploring traveler who desires to make a reputation for himself by his explorations, his case is even worse. Kafiristan, Chinese Tibet, and the very center of Africa, indeed remain for him; but, wherever he may go, he cannot escape the painful conviction that his track will ere long be trodden ground and that the special correspondent, the trained reporter, mill soon try to obliterate his footsteps. It was not so in older times. 

    The man who went out to see a strange country, if he were fortunate enough to return to his friends alive, became an authority on that country to the day of his death, and continued so for generations afterward if he had only used his wits well. An accurate description of a country usually stood good for a century or two at least, and for that period there was no one to dispute it; but the Ichiva of 1872 is fundamentally different from the Khiva of 1875 and could me stand to-day where Burton, half-blinded, first beheld Lake Tanganyika, or where Speke stood sublimely alone a few years ago at Murchison Falls when he was accomplishing the heroic feat of passing(for the first time in authentic history) from Zanzibar to Cairo, through the ground where the Nile unquestionably takes ita rise, we should probably see an English steamboat, with Colonel Gordon, or one of his officers, onboard, moving over the waters of central Africa. For the change in the relations of one county with another, which has been affected by steam as a means of propulsion, is of a most radical kind; and it proceeds so rapidly, that by the time the little girls at our knees are grandmothers and have been fired with that noble ambition to see the world which' possesses the old ladies of our day, it will be only a question of money and choice with them as to having a cruise upon the lakes of Central Africa, or going to reason with the Grand Lama of Tibet upon the subject of polyandry. Such a process, however, mill always leaves room for books of travel by those who are specially qualified either to understand nature or describe mankind; and there are regions of the world, the natural conformation of which will continue to exclude ordinary travelers until we have overcome the difficulty of flying through the air. Especially are such regions to be found in the Himalaya-which, according to the Sanscrit, literally means "The Abode of Snow "and indeed in the whole of that enormous mass of mountains which stretches across Asia and Europe, from the China Sea to the Atlantic, and to which Arab geographers have given the expressive title of " The Stony Girdle of the Earth." It is to the loftiest valleys and almost the highest peaks of that range that I would conduct my readers from the burning plains of India, in the year 1873, in the hope of finding themes of interest, if not many matters of absolute novelty. I have had the privilege of discoursing from and on many mountains - mountains in Switzerland and Beloochistan, China and Japan-and would now speak
    "Of vales wilder and mountains more sublime!' 
    Often, of late years, when thinking of again describing new scenes, the lines have recurred to me with a painful force which the dying Magician of the North wrote in pencil by Tweedside: - 
    '' How shall the warped and broken 
     endure to bear the painters dye 
    The harp with strained and tuneless chord, 
    How to the minstrel's skill reply " 
    But the grandest mountains of the world, which have restored something of former strength, may 'perhaps suggest thoughts of interest, despite the past clathrin life of an invalid in the tropics. There is a lily (F.cordata) which rarely blossoms in India unless watered with ice-water, which restores its vigor and makes it flower. So the Englishman, whose frame withers and strength depart in the golden sunlight, but oppressive air, of India, find new vigor and fresh thought and feeling among the snows and glaciers of the Himalaya. If the reader will come with me there, and rest under the lofty deodar tree, I promise him he will find no enemy but winter and rough weather, and perhaps we may discourse not altogether unprofitably under the shadow of those lofty snowy peaks, which continue



    The change in modern travel has brought the most interesting, and even the wildest, parts of India within easy reach for our countrymen. Bishop Heber mentions in his Journal that he knew of only two Englishmen-Lord Valencia and Mr. Hyde-who had visited India from motives of science or curiosity since the country came into our possession. Even thirty years ago such visits mere unknown; and the present Lord Derby was about the first young Englishman who made our Indian empire a part of the grand tour corresponding to that which, with our forefathers, extended only to France, Italy, and the German Spas. Nowadays, old ladies of seventy, who had scarcely ever left B-train before, are to be met with on the spurs of the Himalaya; and we are conveyed rapidly and easily over vast stretches of burning land, which, a few years ago, presented formidable obstacles to even the most eager traveler. On the great routes over the vast plains of Hindustan, there is no necessity now for riding twenty miles a-day from bungalow to bungalow or rolling tediously in a palki gharri over the interminable grind Trunk Road. 

    Even in a well-cushioned comfortable railway compartment, it is somewhat trying to shoot through the blinding sunlight and golden dust of an Indian plain; and knowing ones are to be seen in such circumstances expending their ice and soda-water upon the towels which they have wrapped around their heads. But we are compelled to have recourse to such measures only in the trying transition periods between the hot and cold seasons; because when the heat is at its greatest, artificially-cooled carriages are provided for first-class passengers. Three days from Bombay and twenty pounds conveyance expenses will land the traveler Masuri (Mussoorie) on the outer range of the Himalaya and yet, if he chooses to halt at various places, by the way, a single step almost will take him .into some of the wildest jungle and mountain scenery of India, among the most primitive tribes, and to the haunts of wild animals of the most amiable kind. India, indeed, is one of the greatest, the richest, and the most varied of the countries of the world. It presents every-variety of climate from the dry and singularly bracing cold of the snowy slopes of the Himalaya to the humid tropical heat of the Concan and the coromandel coast. 

    It possesses every variety of scenery from peaks of ice to reefs of coral from treeless, burning plains to thick tangled jungle and almost impenetrable forests. Its two hundred millions of people are not a homogeneous race like the Chinese, presenting everywhere the same appearance, and following the same customs, but arc divided and separated from each other so as almost to defy classification. 

    There is no uniformity in India and the varied wildness of the county is equaled by the varied picturesqueness of its inhabitants. There is no doubt that the Indian climate is somewhat dangerous for Europeans, and it is absurd to deny or ignore the fact, as some people seem inclined to do. The most perilous part of the year is the month of October and the commencement of November when the country is dying up after the great rains of the southwest monsoon. At that time the climate is very damp and hot, and poisonous miasmas arise from the swampy ground and the immense quantities of decaying vegetation. But yet, if the European visitor is to see India in its most striking aspect, he must not shirk the, trying month of October; for the country is then apparelled in green and gold. Vast plains which, a month or two later, appear almost like tracts of desert, are clothed with verdure; the tropical luxuriance of leaf and flower is in its fullest, and all day the land is flooded with rich golden sunlight. 

    From that period, on to the beginning of March, the climate is delightful though, except on the mountains, it is not very favorable to human activity, but it is a great mistake to suppose that this pleasant season is altogether safe. On the plains at least it is not so cold as to allow of clothing being worn of sufficient thickness to guard effectually against the extremely rapid radiation of heat from the human body, especially at the fall of eve; the chills this arising are frequently immediate or exciting causes of fever and dysentery; the traveler has often to pass suddenly from oven-like places into cold winds, and malaria is still rife. It is extremely dangerous to enter some of the most interesting parts of India, such as the Terai and the lion-haunted jungle of the Gir, until the very height of the hot season, when the air is like fire, and all the vegetation is withered. Only at that season is it easy to find the fiercer of the wild beasts, because water is are then so scarce that they are certain to be found at the pools which are left by the great drought. Hence it is desirable to spend a portion of the hot season in the wilder parts of Hindustan, or the thick forest of the Terai but, before the commencement of the south-west monsoon, the traveler should betake himself to the Himalaya, and place snowy ranges between himself and the great rains.

    The Suez Canal has created many facilities for getting to the East and has made Bombay the great point of disembarkation. Had the bishop-poet lived now he might have sung, with much more truth than he did fifty years ago
    Thy towers, they say, gleam fair, Bombay, Across the dark-blue sea; "
    for the schemes of Sir Bartle Frere, energetically carried out by his successor, Sir Seymour Fitzgerald, have given that city the most imposing public buildings to be found in the East-if we except some of the Mohammedan mosques, with the palaces and tombs (for these, too, are public buildings) of the Mogul emperors-and in other ways, also, have made it worthy of its natural situation, and a splendid gate of entrance to our Indian empire. But half Europeanised as the capital of Western India is, within ten miles of it, on the island of Salsette, at the little-visited Buddhist caves of Kanhari, the traveler will find not only a long series of ancient richly sculptured cave-temples and monastic retreats but also the most savage specimens of animal and vegetable life, in a thick jungle which often seems alive with monkeys, and where, if he only remains overnight, he would have a very good chance of attracting the attention of the most ferocious denizen of the Indian forest. 

    Though the locomotive bears him swiftly and smoothly up the inclines of the Thull Ghaut, instead of his having to cross the Sahyadri range by a bridle-path, or be dragged painfully by tortured bullocks at the rate of half a mile an hour, as was the case only a few years ago yet he has only to stop at the picturesquely-situated bungalow at Igatpuri (Egutpoora), and wander a little way along the edge of the great bounding wall of the Deccan, to look down immense precipices of columnar basalt, and see huge rock-snakes sunning themselves upon the bastions of old Maratha forts, and be startled by the booming cry of the Entellus monkey, or becoming on the footprints of a leopard or a tiger. And it may not be amiss, when writing of the Western Ghauts, to point out the remarkable parallelism, which has not before been noted, between these mountains and the Himalaya, for it may serve to make the contour of both ranges easily intelligible. 

    Both are immense bounding walls the one to the elevated plains of the Deccan, and the other, to the still more elevated table-land of Central Asia. Carrying out this parallel, the Narbada (Nerbudda) will be found to occupy very much the same position as the Indus, the Satluj the Tapti, and the Godavari as the Brahmaputra. All have their rise high up on their respective table lands some branches of the Godavari rise close to the sources of the Narbada, just as the Indus and the Brahmaputra have their origin somewhere about Lake Manasarovar and yet the former rivers fall into the sea on opposite sides of the Indian peninsula just as the two latter do. 

    So, in like manner, the Tapti has its origin near that of the Narbada, as the Sutlej rises close to the Indus and if we can trust the Sindh tradition, which represents the upper part of the Arabian sea as having once been dry land, there may have been a time within the human era when the Tapti flowed into the Narbada, as the Sutlej does into the Induesome way above the sea. There is no mountain group in the highlands of Central India where the three southern rivers rise quite so close together as do the three northern rivers from the lofty and inaccessible Tibetan Kailash, but still, there is a great similarity in their relative positions, and it is only when we think of the Sahyadri and Himalaya as bounding walls that we can understand their relations to the table-land behind them, and their terrific fall to the low-lying land in front.

    But there is no snow on the Sahyadri mountains, so we must hurry on past Nasik, where there is a holy city scarcely less sacred than Benares in the estimation of the Hindus; so holy is it that the mere mention of the river on which it stands is supposed to procure the forgiveness of sins; and the banks of this river are covered by as picturesque ghats and temples as those of the Gangetic city. No traveler should omit stopping at Nandgaum, to pay a visit to the immense series of carved hills, of rock- temples and sculptured caves, which make Ellora by far the most wonderful and instructive place in India. If we have to diverge from the railway line again into the upper Tapti valley, we shall find that the basins of rich and Bombay once cultivated soil is covered by a dense jungle of grass and bamboo, full of tiger, bear, bison, sambar and spotted deer, and inhabited, here and there, by Kurkies and other aboriginal tribes, but having a deadly climate during a great part of the year. Approaching Khandwa, on the railway, we see the ancient and famous fort of Asirghar in the distance rising 850 feet above the plain, and 2300 feet above the sea; and Khandwa itself, which has been built with the stones from an old Jain town, is important now as a place where the whole traffic of Central India to Bombay meets, and as one terminus of a branch line of rail which takes into a great native state of India, and the capital of the famous Holkar.

    Here we enter into the Narbada valley and are soon between two notable ranges of mountains, the Satpura and the Vindhya. Ten years ago the Central Provinces were described as "for the most part a terra-incognita" and, though now well known, the highlands of Central India present abundance of the densest jungle, full of the wildest animals and the most primitive of men. In the early dawn, as the railway train rushes along through the cool but mild air, are seen to the right an irregular line of picturesque mountains covered with the thick jungle to their summits; and the Englishman unaccustomed to India, who leaves the- railway and goes into them, will find himself as much out of his reckoning as if he threw himself overboard and Sea steamer and made for the Arabian coast.

    The Narbada, which is the boundary between the Deccan and Hindustan proper, rises at Amartank, at the height of 5000 feet, in the dominions of the painted Rajah of Rewa, who was certainly the most picturesque figure in the great Bombay durbar two and a half years ago and who, more recently, being in bad health and unfit for the cares of rule, has shown his great good sense by asking the British Government to undertake the tutelage of his state and his son until that son attains his majority. It enters the Gulf of Bombay at the cotton town of Bharuch or Broach, and to the English merchant is almost the most important of the Indian rivers. It is supposed that, in prehistoric times, its valley must have been a series of great lakes, which are now filled by alluvial deposits of a recent epoch; and the discovery of flint implements in its alluvium, by the late Lieutenant Downing Sweeney, has indicated it as an important field for the researches of the archaeologist. 

    Though its upper course is tumultuous enough, in deep clefts through marble rock, and falling in cascades over high ledges, it soon reaches a rich broad valley, containing iron and coal, which is one of the largest granaries and is the greatest cotton-field of India. Through that valley it runs, a broad yellow strip of sand and shingle; and it has altogether a course of about 800 miles, chiefly on a basalt bed, through a series of rocky clefts and value y-basins. If the traveler has come straight from Bombay, he will feel inclined to halt at Jabalpur (Jubbulpore) after his ride of twenty-six hours; but if his stay there is only for a day, he will do well, after seeing the novelty of a Thug school of industry, to hire a horse-carriage, and drive on about ten miles to the famous and wonderful marble Rocks, where I found a beautifully situated bungalow for travelers, and an old but by no means worn-out Rhansamah, who cooked for me a less pretentious but probably as good a dinner as I could have got in the hotels of Jabalpur. The place I speak of presents one of those enchanting scenes which remain forever vivid in the memory. The Narbada there becomes pent up among rocks and falls over a ledge about thirty feet high, and then flows for about two miles through a deep chasm below the surface of the surrounding country, cut through basalt and marble, but chiefly through the latter. The stream above its fall has a breadth of 100 yards, but in the chasm of only about 20 yards; and the glittering cliffs of white marble which rise above it are from 80 to 120 feet high and are composed of dolomite and magnesian limestone.

    Such, briefly stated, are the constituents of the scene, but they are insufficient to explain its weird charm. I went up between the Marble Rocks in the early morning in a boat, by moonlight, and floated down in sunlight; and as we moved slowly up that romanticism, the drip of water from the paddles, and the wash of the stream, only showed how deep the silence was. tiger had been doing some devastation in the neighborhood, and one of the boatmen whispered that we might have a chance of seeing it come down to drink at the entrance of the cleft, or moving along the rocks above, which of course made the position more interesting. The marble walls on one side, which sparkled like silver in the moonlight, reflected so white radiance as almost to illumine the shadow of the opposite cliffs; but the stream itself lay in deeper shadow, with here and their shafts of dazzling light falling upon it; and above, the moonbeams had woven in the air a silvery veil, through which even the largest stars shone only dimly. It did not look at all like a scene on earth, but rather as if we were entering the portals of another world.

    Coming down in the brilliant sunlight the chasm appeared less weird but hardly less extraordinary. Large fish began to leap at the dragonflies which skimmed over the surface of the water; monkeys ran along the banks above, and chattered angrily at us; many peacocks also appeared above, uttering their harsh cries; and the large bees' nests which hung everywhere and there from the Marble Rocks, began to show unpleasant symptoms of life. Let every visitor to this place beware of how he disturbs these ferocious and reckless insects. 

    They are very large their sting is very poisonous, and they display a fury and determination resenting any interference, which makes them most, formidable enemies. Two Englishmen, I was told, were once floating through the chasm, when a ball, which one of them had fired at a peacock, slanted off from the rock and unfortunately happened to hit one of these nests. The consequence was that the bees immediately swarmed about the boat, and stung one of its occupants, who were unable to swim, so severely that he died from the effects. His companion leaped into the stream and floated down with I t; but even then a cloud of bees followed him for a long way, watching his movements, and immediately attacked his face and every portion of his body which appeared for an instant above the surface of the water.
    Allahabad, the capital of the North-West Provinces, has become one of the most important places in India from its position at the junction of two mighty rivers, and as the center of the railway communication between Bombay, Calcutta, and Panjab. It possesses a newspaper, the.' Pioneer,' which obtained great popularity over India from the humor of its late editor, the Rev. Julian Robinson; and while its past is interesting from its connection with the Indian Mutiny and the stemming of the tide of mutiny, the archaeologist will find in it remains which are of great importance for the elucidation of Indian antiquity. It was also well known to English travelers as the residence of Mr. Rivett-Carnac, then the cotton commissioner, who has distinguished himself by his great efforts to enable India to meet the demands of Great Britain for its products, by his activity in collecting information of all kinds, and his extreme readiness in imparting it to those who are happy enough to come in contact with him.


    we must proceed towards the Himalaya, and to do so at once, I shall say nothing here of Cawnpore [Kanpur] and Lucknow, Delhi, and Agra. They have been admirably described by several modern writers, but no description can give an adequate idea of the mournful interest excited by a visit to the two formers, or of the dazzling beauty of the Taj Mahal and the Pearl Mosque of Agra. I shall only remark that those who visit the scenes of the Indian Mutiny may do well to inquire for themselves into the true history of that dreadful outbreak, and not allow themselves to be deceived by the palliating veil which such amiable writers as the late Dr. Norman Macleod have drawn over it. That history has never been written, and I was assured by one of the special commissioners who went up with the first relieving force from Allahabad, that the Government interfered to prevent his publishing an account of his experience of it as drawn from what he had seen, and from the sworn depositions which had been made before him. It is right that the Angel of Mercy should bend over the well at Kanpur, and flowers spring from the shattered walls of the Residency at Lucknow, but the lessons of the Mutiny are likely to be in great part lost, if its unprovoked atrocities are to be entirely concealed in the darkness to which every humane heart must desire to relegate them.

    Here, in the valley of the Ganges, we may be said to be at the base of the Himalaya, though even from near points of view they are not visible through the golden-dust haze of an Indian March. This valley runs parallel with the Stony Girdle for 1200 miles, itself varying from 80 miles in breadth at Monghir, to 200 at Agra and is so flat as to suggest rather an immensely'long strip of plain than anything liken valley. Those who do not think of venturing into the high and interior Himalaya, but yet wish to have something like a near view of the highest and grandest mountains in the world, will, of course, direct their steps to one or more of the hill-stations on its southern or south-western front, and each of the more important of these is a place of departure for the wilder and more inaccessible country behind. A glance at these latter will serve to expose the points from which the most interesting parts of the Himalaya are accessible. To begin from the east, Darjiling (Darjeeling) is the great sanitarium for Bengal, and is usually the residence, for some portion of the year, of the Lieutenant Governor of that province, and his chief officers. A railway is in course of construction or is to be constructed, which will greatly facilitate access to it. As it is, we have to go eleven hours by rail from Calcutta, four hours in a river steamboat, 124 miles a dak gharri, bullock shigram, or mail-cart, then fourteen miles on horseback or in a palanquin to the foot of the hills, and by similar means of carriage up to the top of them, to reach Darjiling. 

    In the rains, this is a horrible journey to make and, except in the very hot season, the miasma of the Tarai or jungle. the forest between Siliguri and Pankabarri is so deadly that the traveler is always advised to pass it by the daylight a proposal which in all probability he will be glad to accede to unless familiarity with tigers and wild elephants has bred in him a due contempt for such road-fellows. This makes Darjiling not a very easy place to get at, and it has the additional disadvantage of being exceedingly wet and cold during the south-west monsoon-that is to say, from any time at the end of June till the beginning of October; but, notwithstanding these drawbacks, it recommends itself to the tourist who does not care to attempt tent-life in the mountains, on account of its magnificent view of the Himalaya, and its vicinity to the very highest peaks of that mighty range.

    Gaurisankar, or Mount Everest, the culminating point of the earth's surface, and which rises to the height of 29,002 feet above the level of the sea, is in Nepal, and is not visible from the hill-station we speak of; but it can be seen, when the weather allows, from an elevation only a day or two's journey from Darjiling.

    Kangchenjunga in Sikkim, however, which is the second Himalayan highest peak in the world, and rises to the height of 28,150 feet, is visible from Darjiling and no general view of the Himalaya is finer, more characteristic, or more impressive, than that which we may have from the Katcherri hill at Darjiling, looking over dark range after range of hills up to the eternal snows of Kangchenjunga, and the long line of its attendant monarchs of mountains. Unfortunately, Gaurisankar, the loftiest mountain of all, is out of the reach of nearly all travelers, owing to our weakness in allowing Nepal to exclude Englishmen from ita territory; but if anyone is very anxious to try Chinese Tibet, he will find one of the doors into it by going up from Darjiling through the protected state of Sikkim; but whether the door will open at his request is quite another matter, and if he kicks at it he is likely to find himself so suddenly going down the mountains considerably faster than he went up to them. Verbum sat sapienlibus; but if one could only get through this door, it is a very short way from it to Lassa, the capital of Tibet, and the residence of the Grand Lama, which, possibly, is the reason why itis kept so strictly guarded. Gaurisankar, and the highest peaks of the Himalaya, are on the border between Nepal and Tibet and form a group somewhat obtruding from the line of the main range. 

    It is provoking that the weak foreign policy of the Indian Government-a policy, however, which has been very much forced upon it from home-should allow the Nepalese to exclude English travelers from their territory, while at the same time we treat the former as friendly allies, and heap honors upon Jung Bahadur. To take such a line is always regarded in the East as a proof of weakness, which indeed it is; and the best commentary upon its effects are the belief, everywhere prevalent in India, that the Nana Sahib is, or for long has been, the protected guest of the Court of Kathmandu.

    This policy places about 500 miles of the Himalaya out of the reach of the English traveler, though these 500miles contain the culminating point of the whole range, the most splendid jewel in the Stony Girdle of the earth. There is another the stretch of 500 miles to the east of Nepal, occupied by Bhutan, in which also no European can travel, owing to the character of the inhabitants and of the Government; so that it is only in the little narrowed strip of Sikkim that one can get up at all to the main range of the eastern Himalaya; and thus we are practically shut out from a thousand miles of the Himalaya-from a thousand miles of the noblest mountains in the world, overlooking the Gangetic valley and the conquered provinces of British India. 

    It follows from this that the traveler who wishes to enter among these giant mountains, and is not content with a view of them such as we have of the Oberland Alps from the summit of the Righi, must of necessity betake himself to the Western Himalaya. It is true he may go up the Sikkim valley from Darjeeling to the foot of Kanchanjanga, but he is then confined to the narrow gorges of the Testa and the Ranjit. Moreover, it is only in summer that one can travel among the higher ranges, and in summer Sikkim is exposed to almost the full force of the Indian monsoon, which rages up to the snows of Kanchanjanga with a saturated atmosphere and the densest fogs. Pedestrianism and tent- traveling in such circumstances are almost out of the question, and as it is only when the traveler can get a snowy range between himself and the Indian monsoon that he can travel with any comfort, or even with safety, among the Himalaya in summer, he must perforce betake himself to their western section, if he desires to mike acquaintance with the interior and higher portions of that mighty range.

    Passing, then, over the 500 miles of Nepal, and casting one longing look in the direction of Gaurisankar, we come to Naini Tal or Nyni Tal, which is the sanitarium of the North-West Provinces, as DBrjilingis of Bengal, and is visited every year by their lieutenant-Governor, and a large a portion of Allahabad society. It is a charming spot, with a beautiful little lake surrounded by wooded mountains, but it is not in proximity to any high peaks, nor does it command-view of the snowy ranges. 

    It does not afford easy access to any of the points of special interest in the higher mountains and we do not recommend the Himalayan tourist to pay it a visit, for the time which would occupy might be much better bestowed in other directions, but it has the advantage of having two outposts of civilization between it and the snowy mountains,-namely, Almora, from which a long route by the base of Nanda Kut (22,536 feet high) will takeup to another door into Chinese Tartary; and Ranikhet, to which the late Lord Mayo had some thought of removing the summer seat of the Supreme Government from Simla, because it has an abundance of wood and water and is one of the very few places in the Himltlayawhere there is a little level ground. 

    The next sanitarium is Mussoorie, which can be reached, through the Shiwalik range and the beautiful valley of the Dehra Doon, in a long day from Saharanpur on the railway. It is not visited by any Government in particular; there is nobody to look after people's morals in that aerial retreat and the result is, that though Mussoorie has much quiet family life, and is not much given to balls or large gay parties, it yet has the character of being the fastest of all the hill-stations, and the one where grass windows combine to allow themselves the greatest liberty. 

    This is a scandal, however-not exact science; and as I have something special to say about both Mussoorie and  Shimla, I shall only remark here that they present by far the best points of departure for a tour in the interior Himalaya but it should be noted that it is almost impossible to cross the outer snowy range from the former station during July, August, and September, when the monsoon is piling snow upon it, and beneath the snow-line the rivers are flooded. The younger hill-stations of Dharamsala and Dalhousie a long way to the north-west of Shimla, and are so far from the line of railway to Lahore and from any carriage-roads, that they are not likely to be sought, in the h t instance, by any tourist, however enterprising. 

    But it may be remarked that they are convenient depots of the products of a civilization that Dalhousie is a good starting point for Kashmir and that Dharamsala, where the houses stand at elevations of from about 4000 to 7000 feet high, rises out of the Kangra valley, which Lord Canning held to be the most beautiful district in India, except Kashmir, and which combines the advantages of tropical with Alpine climate and vegetation. Very far beyond these, at a height of about 7000 feet, we have Marri (Muree, which is the hill-station for the Panjab and its Lieutenant Governor, and the great point of departure for Kashmir. 

    It is only 40 miles distant from the Grand Trunk Road at Rawalpindi and can be reached in hill-carts so that it is really more accessible to the English tourist then some of the hill-stations which geographically may appear much nearer; but it is not in immediate proximity to any very high ranges, though sometimes a glimpse can beget from its the neighborhood of the wonderful peak of Nanga Parbat, which is 26,629 feet high. Close to the Indus, where the Himalaya have changed into the Hindu Kush, there is Abbottabad, which, though a military station and little over 4000 feet, is one of the points which command Kashmir; and it has besides the sanitarium of Tandali, or Tundiani, which presents more extensive views from the height of 9000 feet. And here our line of sanitariums comes to an end; for though the plain of our trans-Indus possession is bounded by the most tempting mountains-the lower ranges of The Hindu Kush yet if the tourist makes even the slightest attempt to scale these, he will find that between the Akoond of Swat, the Amir of Kabul, and the officers of the British Government, he will have an uncommonly bad time of it, and may consider himself fortunate if he is only brought back neck and crop to Peshawar (Peshawur) and put under surveillance ordered out of the district. 

    Shimla, as I have indicated, is the best starting point for the inner Himalaya, besides being an interesting place in itself, as usually the summer residence of the viceroy and the other chiefs of the Supreme Government of India, though this year they have been detained in Calcutta by the Bengal famine. But Mussoorie is easier to access; that place, or rather The closely adjacent military station of Landour, commands after view of snowy peaks; and it is not necessary to descend from Ifash-i to the burning plains in order to reach Shimla, as a good bridle-road, passing through the new military station of Chakrata connects the two places and can be traversed in fourteen easy marches, which afford very good preliminary experience for a tour in the Himalaya.


    IN April of 1873 Mussoorie was the first elevation I made for, and eagerly did I seek its cool breezes after the intense heat of Agra and Delhi. Anglo-Indians are very hospitable towards English travelers, and as the thoughtful the kindness of Sir William Muir, the thenLieutenant-Governor of the North-West Provinces, had furnished me with some letters of introduction, I could not but accede to his wish that I should go to Roorkee and see the Engineering College there, the workshops, and the works of the Ganges Canal. At Saharanpur, the railway station for Roorkee there is a botanical garden and a valuable collection of fossils, under the charge, and created by the labors, of Dr. Jamieson, of the Forest Department, a relative and pupil of the well-known mineralogist, and one of the founders of the science of geology, who for fifty years occupied the post of Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh. Roorkee is famous for its Engineering College, and for its invaluable canal, which has done so much to prevent famine in the North-WestProvinces. 

    I was fortunate enough there to be the guest of Major Lang, the very able The principal of the Thomason Engineering College, who had formerly been engaged in the construction of " the Great Hindustan and Tibet Road," which runs from Shimla towards ChineseTerritory and any doubts as to where I was bound for were soon entirely dissipated by the Principal's descriptions of Chini and Pangay, the Indian Kailash, and the Parang La He warned me, indeed, not to attempt Chinese Tibet, lest the fate of the unfortunate AdolphSchlagintwcit might befall me, and a paragraph should appear in the Indian papers announcing that a native traveler from Gartok had observed ahead adorning the pole of a Tartar's tent, which head, there was only too much reason to fear from his description of it, must -have been that of the enterprising traveler who lately penetrated into Chinese Tibet by way of Shipki. 

    But then it was not necessary to cross the border to see Chini and the Kailash and even his children kindled with enthusiastic delight as they cried out" Pangay! Pangay I "This Engineering College was founded in 1848 by Mr. James Thomason, the then Lieutenant-Governor of the North-West Provinces, an Indian civilian of great ability and influence, and it waa organized by ColonelMaclagan, R.E. The number of students has steadily increased until it is now about 300, and the various classes are composed of officers, non - commissioned officers, privates in the army, civil Englishmen, and natives. 

    The commissioned officers who go there are prepared for the Public Works Department and have to go through a very severe course of study. The civil Englishmen are young men, between 18 and 22 years of age, who have been educated in India or at home, and, before admission, are required to pass an examination in English literature and composition, Latin, French or German, Physical Science, Algebra, Geometry, Plane Trigonometry, kc. Of this section of the College, Colonel Medley, a recent Principal, said-" It forms the most the valuable provision at present extant for the sons of the many respectable servants ofGovernment who cannot afford them the cost of an English career? Many of these young men are gentlemen in manners and tone others are not at all so but they are all treated as such, and the increasing admixture of students from England is a great advantage in this respect.

    " The non-commissioned officers and soldiers are trained up to be overseers and sub-overseers in the P.W. Department. There is another college of the same kind in Western India at Poona, and both establishments aim at training up officers and civil students to be engineers of the first-class; to provide an opening for deserving soldiers and others of the lower grades; and, more generally, to afford opportunity and encouragement to the people of India to qualify themselves for being their own engineers. 

    An institution of this kind is better for the natives than classes which foster the Indian the tendency to indulge to excess in the subtleties of speculation and the niceties literature; but though the Indians get on well enough with engineering, so far as it consists in drawing plans and making calculations in a room, they do not succeed so well with field work, for their early marriages, peculiar diet and habits of life, do not fit them for combining physical with intellectual exertions. At Roorkee, there are six scholarships of 50 rupees per mensem for native students. This is a great bonus for people like the Hindu, with whom 50 rupees go so long away; but it is only very lately that it has induced young men of the kind intended to come forward at all; and,. at a recent examination, even a Lieut.-.Governor is so partial to them as Sir William Muir was"sorry to say that the class had not answered the expectations of its founder.

    "There is a printing-press attached to this college, and many valuable publications have issued from it-handbooks on engineering, and the periodical " Professional Papers on IndianEngineering." It was pleasing to notice that much care was devoted by the Principal, in his private capacity, to promote the moral and social development of the students under his charge.

    As the greatest religious fair of the Hindu was being held at this time at Haridwar (Hurdwar), where the Ganges is supposed to issue from the Himalaya, went over there to see that extraordinary scene and was fortunate enough to hit upon the auspicious day for bathing. Haridwar, or, more correctly, Haridwar, means the gate of Hari" of Vishnu, and it is also called Hari-Pair or the Stairs of Vishnu. By the Hindus, it is called the source of the sacred Ganges and is at least the point where that sacred river issues from the mountains upon the plains. 

    With that inconsequence which characterizes later Hinduism or Brahmanism, Shiva is the proper deity of the Ganges, because he is the lord of the Himalaya and when Ganga was unable to pour her flood over India, she obtained the consent of Shiva to pour herself over his head, which she did in such an impetuous manner, that "the god grew angry, and locked up her struggling floods amid his labyrinthine hair." In this legend, we may see the immense value which was necessarily attached to the fertilizing power of The Ganges by the people of India and the use to which that was turned when Hinduism became a priestly system. 

    The commencement of the yearly meeting of the snow on the Himalaya mas probably the reason why this particular season was chosen for the yearly pilgrimage to Haridwar when the sun is in Pisces and enters Aries; but I know not why a particular value should be attached to the pilgrimage every twelfth year when Jupiter is in Aquarius at the time of the sun entering Aries. These are the periods specially chosen for the pilgrimage, and high religious merit is ascribed to it, as also, more particularly, to bathing in the water at the " auspicious moment," which is calculated by the astrologers and brahmins, when the sun enters Aries. It is a mistake to suppose that Hinduism is not believed in by the people of India, however little relationship it may now have to true religion. On these occasions, there were about 100,000 people collected at Haridwar, of all ages, and in every stage of physical strength. The bathing was not confined to the auspicious moment. 

    The water, as also the morning wind, was very cold; and delicate young women, children, and old shriveled grand dangles shivered in the stream, but really looked as if they were fulfilling a sacred duty, and enjoying an inestimable privilege. Of indecency at the bathing there was not a trace, though, likely enough, in the vast crowd of people camped in the neighborhood, curious things went on, as they would in any similar crowd in any country; and in no other country that I know of, would a crowd of the same magnitude have presented so much outward propriety of behavior, whether at the bathingplaceor in their encampments. 

    The puerility of the whole affair was more striking than any other feature of it. There is scarcely now the enthusiasm which this pilgrimage used to call forth, and British regulations have interfered to prevent the occurrences which redeemed it from commonplace and must have made the pilgrims feel that they were accomplishing something wonderful. The Gosains and Bairagis-rival sects of Hindu devotees are not allowed now to fight as they used to do, and as in 1760, when 18,000 of the latter are said to have been killed at this Haridwar Mela

    The steps leading down to the river are crowded enough; but care is taken to prevent such scenes as occurred in 1819, when, at the auspicious hour for bathing, 430 persons were crushed to death, including some of the British sepoys who were placed to preserve order. So careful even are the sanitary arrangements, that there is little chance of cholera breaking out in the camp and spreading its poison all over India as it did on one occasion ten years ago. The doctors at Hardwar, when I was there, were very careful. A youthful pilgrim died, as it turned out, of chest disease, and his relatives, anxious to avoid Remedial examination, concealed the death and had the body carried off secretly, but the medical authorities got wind of the occurrence and hunted down the corpse ten miles off.

    Business is combined with religion at this great gathering. Fruits come from Kabul, Kandahar, Kashmir, turbans, ivory, and metal ornaments are displayed, as also aarsnets, arms of various kinds, and European goods. There are also large numbers of camels, mules, and horses for sale. Several officers of Panjabi regiments had come to Hardwar to purchase horses and, in the evening, we all assembled for dinner at the bungalow of Mr. Jenkinson, the energetic collector of the district, whose hands were pretty full with all he had to look after. 

    I was indebted to him for the use of an elephant which took me through the fair and all about the place; and how that elephant went up and down steps, and over walls which seemed almost impossible for so unwieldy-looking an animal, left a very distinct and lively impression on my mind as to the utter the hopelessness of my ever attempting to escape from a wild one. Many and interesting were the stories which the Panjabi officers had to tell of past times, and if the pious Hindus enjoyed themselves-as they appeared to do, whether in the water or out of it--not less did the company of unpolytheistic Englishmen. The spectacle of the bathing was curious, but not very interesting or exciting, and I do not wonder that the Brahmins have announced, by way of getting up a new sensation, that the auspicious properties are about to be transferred from the Ganges to the Jamuna. At night the scene was rendered striking by most magnificent fires in the jungle of the surrounding hills. 

    Some of these blazed in circles, 'some in long lines, and conveyed the idea of enormous fiery dragons moving on the hillsides; but even these fires did not scare the abundant tigers from the neighborhood. Round the bungalow and tents of the bronzed English officers were picketed elephants, horses, and camels; beyond that, a low, many-voiced, murmur rose from the encampment of the vast multitude of Indians; above and around that, the serpent-like forest-fires gleamed brightly; while, in the thick coverts beyond, there mere great powerful forms of beauty and terror, with their cruel hungry eyes
    " Burning bright 
    In the jungles of the night."
    From Haridwar, I proceeded in a duly along a jungle path through the Terai to the Dehra Doon and Mussoorie. This was my first experience with the Himalaya. In vain had I strained my eyes to catch a glimpse of their snowy summits through the golden haze which filled the hot air. Though visible from Roorkri and many -other places in the plains at certain seasons, they aren't so in April; but here, at least, was the outermost circle of them-the Terai, or, literally, the "wetland ','' the belt of death," the thick jungle swarming with wild beasts, which runs along their southern base. It is not so thick or so deadly here between the Ganga river and the Jamuna River, as it is farther to the east, on another side of the former river, and all the may from the Ganga to the Brahmaputra, constituting, I suppose, the longest as well as the deadliest strip of jungle forest in the world. 

    The greater cold in winter in this north-western portion, and its greater distance from the main range, prevent its trees attaining quite such proportions as they do farther east; but still, it has sufficient heat and moisture, and sufficiently little circulation of air, to make it even here suffocating hothouse, into which the wind does not penetrate to dissipate the moisture transpired by the vegetation; and where  besides the most gigantic Indian trees and plants-as the issue, the saul tree, with its shining leaves and thick clusters of flowers, and the most extraordinary interlacing of enormous creepers-we has, strange to say, a number of trees and other plants properly belonging to far-distant and intensely tropical parts ofthe earth, such as the Cassia alata of Burmah, the Marlea begonifolea of Java, the Deeringia celosioides of Papua, and the Neriurm odorum of Africa. 

    This natural conservatory is a special haunt for wild animals, and for enormous snakes such as the python. The rhinoceros exists in the Terai, though not beyond the Ganges; but in the part, we now are-that between the Ganges and the Jumna-there are wild elephants, and abundance of tiger, leopard, panther, bear, antelope, and deer of various kinds. My Bombay servant had heard so many stories at Haridwar about the inhabitants of this jungle, that he entered into it with fear and trembling. If the word Hathi (elephant) was uttered once by our coolies, it uttered a hundred times in the course of the morning. Before we had gone very far, my duili was suddenly placed on the ground, and my servant informed me that there were some wild elephants close by. Now, the idea of being in a canvas palanquin when an elephant comes up to trample on it is by no means a pleasant one so I gathered myself out slowly and deliberately, but with an alacrity which I could hardly have believed possible. Surely enough the heads and backs of a couple of large elephants were visible in the bush and as they had no howdahs or cloths upon them, the inference was fair that they were wild animals.

    But a little observation served to show that there were men beside them. They turned out to be tame elephants belonging to a well-known Himalayan character, who was hunting in the Terai, and who seems to have been met by every traveler to Mussoorie for the last twenty years. I did not see him at this time but afterward made his passing acquaintance in the hotel at Mussoorie, and again in Bombay. 

    It will give some idea of the abundance of game in this part of the Terai to mention, that on this shooting excursion, which lasted only for a very few days, he bagged two tigers, besides wounding another which was lost in the jungle, three panthers, and about thirty deer. He has been called the " Ranger of the Himalaya," and his history is a curious one. About thirty years ago he wandered up to these mountains on a foot from Calcutta [Kolkata] with his gun, being a sort of superior "European loafer." There his skill as a hunter enabled him to earn more than a livelihood, by preserving and sending to Calcutta the skins of the golden pheasant and other valuable birds. 

    This traffic soon developed to such proportions that 'he employed many pahurrls to procure for him the skins of birds and animals so that his returns were not solely dependent on the skill of his own hand. He married a native mountain lady, who possessed some land, a few days' marches from Masoorie and finally, by a fortunate contract for supplying Indian railways with sleepers from the woods of the Himalaya, he had made so much money that it was currently believed at Masoorie . when I was there that he was worth more than £150,000. I was interested in his account of the passes leading towards Yarkand and Kashmir, with some of which he had made personal acquaintance. 

    I may mention, also, that he spoke in very high terms of the capacities, as an explorer, of the late Mr. Hayward, the agent of the Geographical Society of London, who was cruelly murdered on the border of Yassin, on his way to the Pamir Steppe, the famous " Roof of the world." It has been rumored that Mr. Hayward was in the habit of ill-treating the people of the countries through which he passed; but the Ranger, who traveled with him for some time, and is himself a great a favorite with the mountaineers repelled this supposition, and said he had met with no one so well fitted as this unfortunate agent of the Geographical Society for making his way in difficult countries. 

    I do not think that the least important should be attached to accusations of the kind which have been brought against Mr. Hayward, or rather against his memory. The truth is, it is so absolutely necessary at times in High Asia to carry matters with a high hand--so necessary for the preservation, not only of the traveler's own life but also of the lives of his attendants-that there is hardly a European traveler in that region against whom, if his mouth were only closed with the dust of the grave, and there was any reason for getting up a case against him, it could not be proved, in a sort of way, that it was his ill-treatment of the natives which handled to his being murdered. I am sure such a case could have been made out against me on more than one occasion, and an officer on the staff of the Commander-in-Chief in India told me that the people of Spiti had complained to him that a Sahib, who knew neither Hindustani nor English, much less their own Tibetan dialect, had been beating them because they could not understand him. This was Dr. Stoliczka, a mild, gentlemanly member of the late Yarkand Mission; and the cause of his energy in Spiti was that, shortly before, in Lahul, several of his coolies had perished from cold, owing to the disobedience of his orders, and, being a humane man, he was anxious to guard against the recurrence of such an event. 

    But when treating of Eashmfr I shall speak more openly about the story of Hayward's death, and only wish to note here the testimony in his favor which was borne by the experienced " Ranger of the Himalaya," who has become almost one in feeling with the people among whom he dwells. In the center of this Terai, there is an expensively built police chowki, in which I took refuge from the extreme heat of the day; but what police have to do there unless to apprehend tigers, does not appear at first sight. 

    It is quite conceivable, however, that he conservatory 'might become a convenient place of refuge for wild and lawless men, as well as for wild plants and wild beasts. Hence the presence in its midst of these representatives of law and order, who hailed the visit of a Sahib with genuine delight. The delay here prevented me reaching the cultivated valley of the Dehradoon till midnight, so torches were light long before we left the thicker part of the Terai; their red light made the wild jungle look wilder than ever, and it was with a feeling of relief that we came to upon the first gardens and tea-plantations. There is no place in India unless perhaps the plateaus of the blue mountains, which reminds one so much of England as the little valley of the Dehra Doon; and Sir George Campbell has well observed that no district has been so happily designed by nature for the capital of an Anglo-Indian empire. 

    It lies between the Shiwalik or sub-Himalayan range and the Himalaya itself. This former low line of hills, which is composed of the debris of the greater the range has its strata dipping towards the latter in a north-easterly direction and consists of a few parallel ridges which are high towards the plains, but sloping in the direction of the Himalaya where there is any interval between. It contains an immense collection of the fossil bones the horse, bear, camel, hyena, ape, rhinoceros, elephant, crocodile, hippopotamus, and also of the megatherium, the megatherium, and other enormous animals not now found alive. 

    At some places, it rests upon the Himalaya, and at others are separated from them by raised valleys. The Dehra Doon is one of those elevated valleys, with the Upper Ganges and Jamuna flowing through it on opposite sides, and is about seventy miles in length, and nearly twenty in breadth. It is sometimes spoken of, by enthusiasts for colonization in India, as if the whole Anglo-Saxon race might find room to establish themselves there; but it is really a very small district, with most of the available land cultivated; and from Mussoorie we see the whole of it lying at our feet and bounded by the two shining rivers. It is a very pleasant place, however. Being so far north, just about 30 Degree of latitude, and at an elevation of a little over 2000 feet, it enjoys a beautiful climate.

     Even in the hot season the nights and mornings are quite cool, which is the great thing in a hot country; the fall of rain is not so great as in the plains below or in the hills immediately above, and in the cold season the temperature is delightful, and at times bracing. I saw roses in the Dehra Doon growing under bamboos and mango-trees, and beds of fine European vegetables side by side with fields of the tea-shrub).In one plantation which I examined particularly, the whole process of preparing the tea was shown tome. It was under the superintendence of a Celestial, and the process did not differ much from that followed in China, but the plants were smaller than those usually seen in the Flowery Land. 

    After having been for longa rather unprofitable speculation, the cultivation of tea. on the slopes of the Himalaya is now a decided monetary success, and the only difficulty is to meet the demand for Indian tea which exists not only in India and Europe but also in Central Asia. Dr. Jamieson of Saharanpur, who has interested himself much in the growth of tea in India, and pressed it on when almost everybody despaired of ita ever coming to anything, was kind enough to give me a map showing the tea districts of the W.estern Himiilaya; and I see from it that they begin close to the Nepalese frontier at Pithoragarh in Kumaon. A number of them are to be found from a little below Nainital northwards up to Almora and Ranikhet. Besides those in the Dehradoon, there are some in its neighborhood immediately below Mussoorie, and to the east of that hill - station. Next, we have those at Kalka on the way to Shimla from Ambala (Umballa), at or rather just below Shimla itself, at Kotgarh in the valley of the Sutlej, and in the Kullu valley, so famed for the beauty and immorality of its women. And lastly, there is a group at Dharamsala, and in the Kangra valley and its neighborhood.

    The cultivation of tea does not seem to get on in the Himalaya above the height of 6000 feet, and it flourishes from that height down to about 2000 feet, or perhaps lower. Some people are very fond of Indian tea and declare it to be equal, if not superior, to that of the Middle Kingdom; but I do not agree with them at all. When my supplies ran out in High Asia, tea was for some time my only artificial beverage, though that, too, failed me at last, and I was obliged to have a course to roasted barley, from which really very fair coffee can be made, and coffee quite as good as the liquid to be had under that name in half the cafes of Europe.

    It is in such circumstances that one can really taste tea when we are so dependent on it for its refreshing and invigorating effects; and I found that none of the Indian tea which I had with me-not even that of Kangra, which is the best of all was to be compared for a moment, either in its effects or in the pleasantness of its taste, with the tea of two small packages from Canton, which was given to me by a friend just as I was starting from Shimla The latter, as compared with the Himalayan tea, was as sparkling hock to home-brewed ale, and yet it was only a fair specimen of the ordinary .better-class teas of the Pearl River.


    Looking from Rajpur at the foot of the hills up to Masoorie that settlement has a very curious appearance. Many of its houses are distinctly visible along the ridges, but they are so very high up, and so immediately above one, as to suggest that I are in for something like the labors and the experience of Jack on the bean-stalk. In the bazaar at Rajpur, I was reminded of the Alps by noticing several cases of goiter: and I afterward saw instances of this disease at Masoorie, at Kalka, at the foot of the Shimla hills; at Shimla; at Nirath, a very hot place near Rampur in the Sutlej valleys; at Lippe, a cool place, above 9000 feet high, in Upper Kanawur, with an abundance of good water; at Keylong in Lahaul, a similar place, but still higher at the Kingdom Monastery in Zanskar, about12,000 feet high; in the great open valley of Kashmir and at Peshawar in the low-lying trans-Indus plain.

    These uses do not all fit into any the particular theory which  has been advanced regarding the cause of this hideous disease  and Dr. Bramley has mentioned in the Transactions of the Medical Society of Calcutta, that in Nepal he found Goitre was more prevalent on the crests of high mountains than in the valleys. The steep ride to Mussoorie up the vast masses of the mountain, which formed only the first and comparatively insignificant spurs of the Himalaya, gave a slight foretaste of what is to be experienced among their giant central ranges. 

    Mussoorie, though striking enough, is by no means a picturesque place. It wants the magnificent deodar and other trees of the Shimla ridge, and, except the extreme end of the settlement, it has no view of the Snowy Mountains, though it affords a splendid outlook over the Dehra Doon, the Shiwaliks, and the Indian plains beyond. The " Himalayan Hotel there is the best hotel I have met with in India, and there are also a club-house and a good subscription reading room and library. Not a few of its English inhabitants live there all year-round, in houses, many of which are placed in little shelves scooped out of the precipitous sides of the mountain. The ridges on which rests afford only about five miles of riding-paths in all, and no table-land. 

    Its height is about 7000 feet almost all the houses being between 6400 and 7200 feet above the level of the sea. But this ensures a European climate for on the southern face of the Himalayas the average yearly temperature of London is found at a height of about 8000 feet. The chief recommendation of Mussoorie is its equality of temperature, both from summer to winter and from day to night; and in most other respects its disadvantages are rather glaring. On April 1 found the thermometer in a shaded place in the open-air ranged from 60" daybreak, to 71" between two and three o'clock in the afternoon; and the rise and fall of the mercury was very gradually and regular indeed, though there was a good deal of rain. The coldest month is January, which has a mean temperature of about 42" 45'; and the hottest is July, which has 67" 35'. 

    The transition to the rainy season appears to make very little difference, but while the months of October and November are delightful, with a clear and serene sky, and an average temperature of 54", the rainy season must be horrible, exposed as Mussoorie is, without an intervening rock or tree, to the full force of the Indian south-west monsoon. The Baron Carl Hiigel mentions that when he was there in 1835, the rain lasted for eighty-jive days, with an intermission of only a few hours. It cannot always be so bad as that at Mussoorie in summer, but still, the place must be exceedingly wet, cold, and disagreeable during the period of the monsoon; and' it is no wonder that, at such a season, the residents of the Dehra Doon much prefer their warmer and more protected little valley below.

    Notwithstanding the attractions of the " Himalayan Hotel," I would recommend the visitors to Mussoorie to get out of it as soon as possible, and to follow the example of the American who said to me after forty-eight hours he could stand it no longer, and that he wanted "to hear them panthers growling about my tent." The two great excursions from this place are to the Jumnotri and the Gangotri peaks, where the sacred rivers, Jamuna and Ganges, may be said to take their rise respectively. These journeys involve tent-life and the usual concomitants of Himalayan travel, but they are well worth making; for the southern side of the sunny Himalaya in this neighborhood is grand indeed. It is only fifteen marches from Mashi to the glacier from which The Ganges is said to issue, though, in reality, a branch of it descends from much further up among the mountains, and these marches are quite easy except for nine miles near to the glacier, where there is " a very bad road over ladders, scaffolds, &c."It is of importance to the tourist to bear in mind that, in order to pursue his pleasure in the Himalaya, it is not necessary for him to descend from Mussoorie to the burning plains. The hill-road to Shimla I have already spoken of. 

    There is also a direct route from Mussoorie toWangtu Bridge, in the Sutlej valley, over the Burand Pass, which is 15180 feet high, and involving only two marches on which there are no villages to afford supplies. This route to Wangtu The bridge is only fourteen marches, and that place is so near to Chini and the Indian Kailash that the tourist might visit these latter in a few days from it, thus seeing some of the finest scenery in the snowy Himalaya, and he could afterward proceed to Shimla from Wangtu  in eleven marches along the cut portion of the Hindustan and Tibet road. There is another and still more interesting route from Mussoorie to the valley of the Sutlej over the Nila or Nilung Pass, and then down the wild Baspa valley; but that pass is an exceedingly difficult one, and is somewhere about 18,000 feet high, so no one should attempt it without some previous experience of the high Himalaya; and it is quite impassable when the monsoon is raging, as indeed the Burand Pass may be said to be also. 

    The neophyte may also do well to remember that tigers go up to the snow on the south side of the Himalaya; and that, at the foot of Yamunotri and Gangotri peaks, besides " them panthers," and a tiger or two, he is likely enough to have snow bears growling about his tent at night. I had been unfortunate in not having obtained even a single glimpse of the snowy Himalaya from the plains, or from any point of my journey to Mussoorie, and learned there that they were only visible in the early morning at that season. Accordingly, I ascended one morning at daybreak to the neighboring military station, of Landour, and there saw three giant mountains for the first time. Sir Alexander Burnes wrote in his 'Travels into Bokhara,' -" I felt a nervous sensation of joy as I first gazed on the Himttlaya"When Bishop Heber saw them he "felt intense delight and awe in looking on them." Even in these anti-enthusiastic times, I fancy most people experience some emotion on first beholding those lofty pinnacles of unstained snow, among which the gods of Hindustan are believed to dwell. From Landour a sea of mist stretched from my feet, veiling, but not altogether concealing, the ridge upon ridge of dark mountains, and even covering the lower portions of the distant great wall of snow. 

    No sunlight as yet fell upon this dark yet transparent mist, in which the mountainous surface of the earth, with its black abysses, seemed sunk as in a gloomy ocean, bounded by a huge coral reef. But above this, dazzling and glorious in the sunlight, high up in the deep blue heavens, there rose a whitening line of gigantic " icy summits reared in air."Nothing could have been more peculiar and striking than the contrast between the wild mountainous country below-visible but darkened as in an eclipse and these lofty domes and pinnacles of eternal ice and neve. 

    No cloud or fleck of mist marred their surpassing radiance. Every glacier, snow-mall, icy aiguille, and smooth-rounded snow-field gleamed with marvelous distinctness in the morning light, though here and there the sunbeams drew out a more overpowering brightness. These were the Yamunotri and Gangotri peaks, the peaks of Badrinath and of the Hindu Kailash; the source of Mighty sacred rivers the very center of the Himalaya the Himmel, or heaven, oft he Teuton Aryans as well as of Hindu mythology.

    Mount Meru itself may be regarded as raising there its golden front against the sapphire sky; the Kailash, or" Seat of Happiness," is the celus of the Latins; and there is the fitting, unapproachable abode of Brahmaand of his attendant gods, Gandharvas, and Rishis.But I now felt determined to take a closer acquaintance with these wondrous peaks to move among them, upon them, and behind them so I hurried from Mussoorie to Shimla by the shortest route, that of the carriage-road from the foot of the hills through the Shiwalik to Saharanpur by rail from thence to Ambala, by carriage to Kalka, and from Kalka to Shimla in jhanpan, by the old road, which, however, is not the shortest way for that last section, because a mail-cart now runs along the new road. Ambala, and the roads from thence to Shimla, present a very lively scene in April, when the Governor-General, the Commander-in-Chief, the heads of the Supreme Government, their baggage and attendants, and the clerks of the different departments are on their way up to the summer retreat of the Government of India. It is highly expedient for the traveler to avoid the days of the great rush when it is impossible' for him to find conveyance of any kind at any price-and I did so, but even coming in among the ragtag and bobtail,-deputy commissioners and colonels commanding regiments-men so tremendous in their own spheres-maybe thus profanely spoken of,-there was some difficulty in procuring carriage and bungalow accommodationand there was plenty of amusing company,-from that -the weight of the post-office official, who required twenty groaning coolies to carry him, to the dapper little lieutenant or assistant deputy commissioner who cantered lightly along parapetless roads skirting precipices; and from the heavy-broomed sultana of some Gangetic station, whose stern look palpably interrogates the amount of your monthly Pagar to the mire lily-like young Anglo-Indian dame or damsel, who dartsat you a Parthian yet gentle glance, though shown"more in the eyelids than tho eyes," as she trips from her jhanpan or Bareilly dandi into the traveler's bungalow.

    In the neighborhood of Shimla, there is quite a collection of sanitariums, which are passed or seen, by the visitors to that more famous place. The first of these, and usually the first stopping-place for the night of those who go by the old bridle-road from Kalka, is Kasauli, famous for its Himalayan beer, which is not unlike the ordinary beer of Munich. It is rainier than Shimla, windier, and rather warmer, though not so high, and is chiefly occupied as a depot for the convalescents of European regiments. Close to it rises the barren hill of Sonawar, where there is the (Sir Henry) Lawrence Asylum, for boys and girls of European or mixed parentage, between 400 and 500 being first usually supported and educated there at the expense of government. 

    Two other sanitariums, Dagshai (Dugshaie) and Subathu (Subathoo), are also military depotsthe latter having large barracks and houses with fine gardens and orchards. The British soldier improves greatly in strength and appearance on these heights, but it is said he does not appreciate the advantages of being placed upon them. He does not like having to do so much for himself as falls to his lot when he is sent to the mountains. He misses the Indian camp followers, who treat him below as a Chota Lord Sahiband, above all, he misses the varied life of the plains, and the amusement of the bazaar. I am afraid, too, mountains fail to afford him much gratification after his first burst of pleasure on finding himself among and upon them. " Sure, and I've been three times around that big hill to-day, and not another blessed thing is there to do up here!" I heard an Irish corporal indignantly exclaim. To the officers and their families, the hills are a delightful change; but to the undeveloped mind of Tommy Atkins, they soon become exceedingly tiresome, though I believe the soldiers enjoy much being employed in the working parties upon the roads, where they have the opportunity of laying by a little money.

    The mountains between Kalka and Shimla are wild and picturesque enough, but they give no idea of either the grandeur of the beauty of the Hima1aya  and the traveler should be warned against being disappointed with them. No ranges of eternal snow are in sightno forests of lofty deodar; no thick jungle, like that of the Tarai; no smiling valleys, such as the Dehra Doon. We have only the ascending of steep bare mountainsides, in order to go down them on the other side or to wind along bare mountain-ridges. The hills either Reston each to, her or have such narrow gorges between, that there is no room for cultivated valleys; and their faces are so steep, and so exposed to the action of the Indian rains, that all the soil is swept away from them; and so we have nothing to speak of but red slopes of rock and shingle, with only a few terraced patches of cultivation, and almost no trees at all, except in. the immediate vicinities of the military stations. The worst part of Syria would show to advantage compared with the long approach to Shimla. 

    I understand, however, that the actual extent of cultivation is. considerably greater than one would readily suppose, and occasionally the creeping vine and the cactus do their best to clothe the rocky surface. On ascending the Shimla ridge itself, however, a change comes over the scene. Himalayan cedars and oaks cover the heights and crowd the glades; rhododendrons, if it is their season of bloom, give quite a glory of color; and both white and red roses appear among the brambles and barberries of the thick underwood; a healthy resinous odor meets one from the forest of mighty pine-trees, mingled with more delicate perfumes; beds of fern with couches of mostly along the roadside; masses of cloud come rolling down the valleys from the rounded, thickly-wooded summit of Jakhoo  deep glens, also finely wooded, fall suddenly before our feet: on the one side, over the confusion of hills and edifices of Subathu and Dagshai, we have glimpses of the yellow burning Indian plain; on the other, through the oak branches and the tower-like stems of deodar, there shines the long white line of eternal snow upon the giant mountains of Chamba, Kullu, and Spiti. 
    It was a matter of life or death for me to reach those snowy solitudes, and I found the words of Mignon's song in ' Wilhelm Meister ' flitting across my brain, and taking a new meaning 


     some people, and especially according to the house-proprietors of Calcutta, who view its attractions with natural disfavor, Shimla is a very sinful place indeed; and the residence there, during summer, of the Viceroy and his members of Council, ought to to be discouraged by a paternal Secretary of State for India. The "Capua of India" is one of the terms which are applied to it; we hear sometimes of "the revels upon Olympus; " and one of the papers seemed to imagine that to describe any official as "a malingerer at Shimla  was sufficient to blast his future life.Even the roses and the rhododendrons, the strawberries and the peaches, of that " Circean retreat," come in for their share of moral condemnation, as contributing to the undeserved happiness of a thoughtless and voluptuous community. For this the view there is some show of justification. 

    Shimla has no open law courts to speak of, or shipping, or mercantile business, or any of the thousand incidents which furnish so much matter to the newspapers of a great city. The large amount of important governmental business which is transacted there is seldom immediately made known, and is usually first communicated to the public in another place hence there is little for the newspaper correspondents to write about except the gaieties of the place; and so the balls and picnics, the croquet and badminton parties, the flirtations and rumored engagements are given the importance which they do not actually possess and assume an appearance  if the residents of Simla had nothing to do but to enjoy themselves and "to chase the glowing hours with flying feet."But, in reality, the dissipation of Simla is not to be compared with the dissipation of a London season, and if the doings of any English provincial town or large watering-place in its season was as elaborately chronicled and looked up to and magnified, maliciously or otherwise, like those of the Indian Capua is, the record would be of a much more scandalous and more imposing kind. 

    Indeed, unless society is to be put down altogether, or conducted on Quaker principles, it is difficult to see how the Anglo-Indians, when they go to the hills, could conduct themselves much otherwise than as they do; and probably more in Simla than anywhere else, there exists the feeling that life would be tolerable were it not for its amusements. After a hard days office work, or after a picnic which involved a dozen miles' slow ride and descent on foot for a thousand feet or so into the hot valley like that of Mashobra, it is not by any means pleasant to don a full dress, to put waterproofs over that, and to go on horseback or be carried in an uncomfortable jhanpan for three or four miles, and in a raging storm of wind, thunder, and rain, out to a bara khana or big dinner, which is succeeded in the same or in some other house by a large evening party. 

    Combinations such as this turn social enjoyment into a stern duty; and as society expects that every the woman shall do her duty, the ladies of Shimla endure their amusements with the courage and spirit of Englishwomen who, for the sake of their sons and brothers and husbands, even more than their own sakes, are not going to be left behind in sacrificing. But no one who knows what European society is will accuse Shimla, of the present and preceding Viceroyships at least, of being an abode of dissipation or of light morality. Wherever youth and beauty meet, there will, no doubt, be a certain amount of flirtation, even though the youth may be rather shaky from long years of hard work in the hot plains of India, or from that intangible malady which friend styles as " too much East," and though the beauty he often pallid and pass, but anything beyond that hardly exists at Simla at all and has the scantiest opportunity for developing itself. 

    Over-worked secretaries to Government, and elderly members of Council, are not given either to indulge in the levity of conduct or to wink at it in others; the same may be said of their ladies: and the young officers and civilians who go up to Shimla for their leave are usually far-seeing youngmen who have an eye to good appointments, and, whatever their real the character may be, are not likely to spoil their chances of success by attracting attention to themselves as very gay Lotharios. 

    Moreover, at Simla, as almost everywhere in India, people live under glass cases; everything they do is known to their native servants and to the native community, who readily communicate their knowledge of such matters to Europeans. Before the Mutiny, and perhaps for some time after it, matters were somewhat different. From whatever cause, the natives, though they saw the doings of the English in India, was as if they saw not, and, as a rule, communicated their knowledge on the subject only to each other. Now, they not only see but speak freely enough, and no immorality can be carried only an Indian station without its being known all over the station, except, perhaps, in cases where the offenders are exceedingly popular with the natives, or very high powerful positions, or the party sinned against is very much disliked. Some sneers have been indulged in of late, even in parliament, at the alleged industry of members of the Supreme Council and other officials to be found at Simla, as if a certain amount of hospitality and of mingling in society was incompatible with leading a laborious life. 

    But if we accept the soldier and regimental officers, it will be found that most of the English in India, be they civilians, staff officers, educationalists, surgeons, merchants, missionaries, or editors, are compelled to live very laborious days, whether they may scorn delights or not. A late Indian Governor, accustomed to parliamentary and ministerial life in England used to declare that he had never been required to work so hard in London, as he was in his comparatively unimportant Presidency town. " Everyone is overworked in India," was remarked to me by an Oudh Director of Public Instruction, who was himself a notable instance of the assertion  and I have often had an occasion to notice how much overtake Indian officials of the higher grades are, and that in a country where the mind works a good deal more reluctantly and slowly then in Europe, and where there is very little pleasure inactivity of any kind for.its own sake. 

    It is absurd to suppose that the immense task of the Indian government can be accomplished by the handful of Englishmen there, without the greatest strain upon their individual energies. Not only have they todo all the ordinary work of a European Government they have also themselves to fill the greater number of judicial, revenue, and educational appointments, to construct public works, to direct the police, to accomplish a great part of the work of governing which, in this country, is performed by hundreds of thousands of country gentlemen and city magnates; and, over and above all that, it is expected that they shall save the Indian people from the consequences of famine, and be able to show every year that they have elevated that people in the scale of humanity. -The supervision of all this arduous labor-the performance of a certain share of its details-the sitting in judgment on numerous appeal cases of the most various and complicated kind-the management of our relationships with great native States both within and without the Indian peninsula-the settlement of important questions of the most difficult kind-and by far the greater share of the immense responsibility of governing an alien empire of nearly two hundred millions of people,-all this, and much more, falls upon the Supreme Government, whether it be located at Calcutta or at Simla; and to compel it to remain nearly all the year in the unhealthy delta of the Ganges would be to burden it with a good deal more than the straw which breaks the camel's back. It is obvious at Simla that the Supreme Government has selected for its summer residence about the best place to be found among the outer Himilaya. The duties of the Government of India will not allow thatGovernment to bury itself in the interior of the great mountains, where much more healthy spots are to be found or to select any place of residence far distant from railway communication.


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    SOURCES OF THE GANGES [ Orgin of Ganga River , Ganges Ancient History & Facts ]

    IN presenting to the Asiatic Society, the interesting narrative of a journey to explore the sources of the Ganges,, I shall prefix to it a few introductory observations to explain 'the grounds, on which the undertaking was proposed by the late Lieut. ColonelCOLEBROOKE , by whom it .would have been performed in person, had he not been prevented by the illness, which terminated in his death.  On examining .the authority, upon which the course of the Ganges above Haridwar, has been laid down in the geographical charts now in use, it appeared to Lieut. Colonel COLEBROOKE , that the authority was insufficient, and the information wholly unsatisfactory. The early course of the river, as delineated in all the modern maps of Asia and India, is taken from D'ANVI LLE'S correction of the Lama's map, modified, however, in RENNELL'S construction, upon information collected by the missionary TIEFFENTH ALLER . That the. Lama's  delineation of the Ganges was to


    Dhauladhar Range  This Guide was first published as a Guide to  Dalhousie only by the late Col. J. H. Hutchinson in 1869-70. A second edition appeared in 1883 d  Mr. R. L. Harris, C. S. The third edition in 1910  edited by Mr. H. A. Rose, C. S., contained much additional the information which has been greatly supplemented  in the present addition. The main aim has  been to give only such information as is likely to be  of permanent value and all rules about supplies,  transport, shooting, etc., are therefore omitted as they change almost every year. It is practically  a new Guide. Contents THE ROUTE TO DALHOUSIE The main road to Dalhousie runs from Pathankot via  Dhar and Dunera in the outer hills. After leaving Pathankot it follows for 6 miles the Kangra Valley road and then turning sharply to the left enters the low hills. Ascending by an easy gradient it surmounts the first ridge of the Shivalik and descends into the dun beyond, through which it

    1882 Tour from Shimla through Bhushaher , Kinnaur and Spiti to Lahul By Mrs. J.C.Murray Aynsley

    Kinnaur PREFACE THINKING that possibly some of my sister tourists may be wishing to make the same round as ourselves but feel doubtful of its feasibility, I venture to put forth this account of our three months' tour in a part of The Himalayas but little known to English travelers. This short sketch will show them that it is possible, and also how it can be done. English sportsmen who go to Spiti in search of the big game usually takes the shorter route up the Wangtu valley and over the Babeh pass (only possible for pedestrians). This brings them into Spiti a few miles above Dhankar. As far as I can learn, few (if any) English ladies have ever marched the same way as ourselves; nor would I advise anyone to do so unless provided with a good strong mountain pony, and also with some means of being carried over certain of the most difficult places. A steady head is also required, for at times it is absolutely necessary to walk along ridges of rock or the edges of steep p


    Contents     CHAPTER I -  INTRODUCTORY REMARKS In September 1869, I addressed Mr. Thornton, Secretary to Punjab Government, as to the advisability of my furnishing a Report on Kooloo, and in reply I was informed, that a " full report on Kooloo would be thankfully received, and probably printed at Government expense; " and Colonel Coxe, the Commissioner of the Division, in his letter of 8th October 1869, to address of the Deputy Commissioner of' Kangra suggested that I should throw, what he was good enough to consider, the "interesting matter " contained in my diaries as Assistant-Commissioner of Kooloo, into the form of a report, that " might be submitted officially to Government."  I have, therefore, during the last year of my term of office in Kooloo, been diligently engaged in collecting facts of more general interest regarding the people and country, which have been so immediately under my care for now nearly two years. It mas at first my